Incidence of Surgical Site Infection After Spine Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
- 作者列表："Zhou J","Wang R","Huo X","Xiong W","Kang L","Xue Y
STUDY DESIGN:A systematic review and meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) in patients following spine surgery and the rate of microorganisms in these cases. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Many studies have investigated the incidence and risk factors of SSI following spinal surgery, whereas no meta-analysis studies have been conducted regarding the comprehensive epidemiological incidence of SSI after spine surgery. METHODS:We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for relevant studies that reported the incidence of SSI after spine surgery, and manually screened reference lists for additional studies. Relevant incidence estimates were calculated. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias assessment were also performed. RESULTS:Our meta-analysis included 27 studies, with 603 SSI cases in 22,475 patients. The pooled SSI incidence was 3.1%. Subgroup analysis revealed that the incidence of superficial SSI was 1.4% and the incidence of deep SSI was 1.7%. Highest incidence (13.0%) was found in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis among the different indications. The incidences of SSI in cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine were 3.4%, 3.7%, and 2.7%, respectively. Compared with posterior approach surgery (5.0%), anterior approach showed a lower incidence (2.3%) of SSI. Instrumented surgery had a higher incidence of SSI than noninstrumented surgery (4.4% vs. 1.4%). Patients with minimally invasive surgery (1.5%) had a lower SSI incidence than open surgery (3.8%). Lower incidence of SSI was found when vancomycin powder was applied locally during the surgery (1.9%) compared with those not used (4.8%). In addition, the rates of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococci in microbiological culture results were 37.9%, 22.7%, and 23.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION:The pooled incidence of SSI following spine surgery was 3.1%. These figures may be useful in the estimation of the probability of SSI following spine surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:3.
研究设计: 系统综述和荟萃分析。 目的: 本研究旨在调查脊柱手术后患者手术部位感染 (SSI) 的发生率和微生物感染率。 背景资料摘要: 许多研究调查了脊柱术后SSI的发生率和危险因素，而尚未进行关于脊柱术后SSI综合流行病学发生率的荟萃分析研究。 方法: 我们检索了PubMed、Embase和Cochrane Library数据库中报告脊柱术后SSI发生率的相关研究，并手动筛选了参考文献列表以获得额外的研究。计算相关发病率估计值。还进行了亚组分析、敏感性分析和发表偏倚评估。 结果: 我们的荟萃分析纳入了 27 项研究，603 例患者中有 22,475 例SSI病例。合并SSI发生率为 3.1%。亚组分析发现浅表SSI发生率为 1.4%，深部SSI发生率为 1.7%。不同适应症的神经肌肉脊柱侧凸患者发生率最高 (13.0%)。颈、胸、腰椎SSI发生率分别为 3.4% 、 3.7% 和 2.7%。与后路手术 (5.0%) 相比，前路手术显示SSI的发生率较低 (2.3%)。器械手术的SSI发生率高于非器械手术 (4.4% vs. 1.4%)。微创手术患者 (1.5%) 的SSI发生率低于开放手术 (3.8%)。与未使用的 (1.9%) 相比，手术期间局部应用万古霉素粉末的SSI发生率较低 (4.8%)。此外，微生物培养结果中金黄色葡萄球菌、表皮葡萄球菌和耐甲氧西林葡萄球菌的比率分别为 37.9% 、 22.7% 和 23.1%。 结论: 脊柱手术后SSI的合并发生率为 3.1%。这些数字可能有助于估计脊柱手术后SSI的概率。 证据级别: 3.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common complication after orthopedic surgery, which is not conducive to the prognosis of the elderly. AIMS:We performed this study to investigate the effects of oxycodone applied for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) on postoperative cognitive function in elderly patients after total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS:Ninety-nine participants were enrolled and allocated into two groups: oxycodone group (group O) and sufentanil group (group S). The primary outcome was the incidence of POCD, diagnosed according to the changes in the Mini-mental status examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. The secondary outcomes included the plasma levels of S-100B protein and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), the amount of postoperative analgesic consumption and the incidence of adverse reactions. RESULTS:The incidence of POCD was significantly lower in patients receiving oxycodone up to the 3rd postoperative day (POD, 1st POD 27.3% vs. 51.1%, P = 0.021; 3rd POD 20.5% vs. 40.0%, P = 0.045), as compared to patients receiving sufentanil. The MMSE and MoCA scores of both groups decreased to varying degrees. However, compared with group S, the MMSE scores at 1st POD, 3rd POD, 5th POD and 7st POD in group O were higher than that in group S, while MoCA scores at 1st POD, 3rd POD and 5th POD in group O were higher. Compared with group S, the plasma levels of S-100B protein in group O at 4 h, 8 h, 12 h post-surgery were lower. While the plasma levels of NSE in group O at 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, 24 h post-surgery were lower. Number of PCIA boluses and consumption of analgesic drug during the first two POD were similar between two groups. However, postoperative incidence of nausea, vomiting and pruritus was significantly lower in patients receiving oxycodone. CONCLUSION:Oxycodone applied for PCIA in elderly patients after THA could reduce the incidence of POCD, improve postoperative cognitive function and decrease the adverse reactions.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Primary treatment for Blount disease has changed in the last decade from osteotomies or staples to tension band plate (TBP)-guided hemiepiphysiodesis. However, implant-related issues have been frequently reported with Blount cases. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the surgical failure rates of TBP in Blount disease and characterize predictors for failure. METHODS:We performed an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective chart-review of pediatric patients with Blount disease to evaluate the results of TBP from 2008 to 2017 and a systematic literature review. Blount cases defined as pathologic tibia-vara with HKA (hip-knee-ankle) axis and MDA (metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle) deviations ≥11 degrees were included in the analysis. Surgical failure was categorized as mechanical and functional failure. We studied both patient and implant-related characteristics and compared our results with a systematic review. RESULTS:In 61 limbs of 40 patients with mean follow-up of 38 months, we found 41% (25/61) overall surgical failure rate and 11% (7/61) mechanical failure rate corresponding to 11% to 100% (range) and 0% to 50% (range) in 8 other studies. Statistical comparison between our surgical failure and nonfailure groups showed significant differences in deformity (P=0.001), plate material (P=0.042), and obesity (P=0.044) in univariate analysis. The odds of surgical failure increased by 1.2 times with severe deformity and 5.9 times with titanium TBP in the multivariate analysis after individual risk-factor adjustment. All 7 mechanical failures involved breakage of cannulated screws on the metaphyseal side. CONCLUSIONS:Most of the studies have reported high failure rates of TBP in Blount cases. Besides patient-related risk factors like obesity and deformity, titanium TBP seems to be an independent risk factor for failure. Solid screws were protective for mechanical failure, but not for functional failure. In conclusion, efficacy of TBP still needs to be proven in Blount disease and implant design may warrant reassessment. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level III-retrospective comparative study with a systematic review.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:As cancer treatments continue to improve the overall survival rates, more patients with a history of cancer will present for anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Therefore, it is essential for orthopaedic surgeons to understand the differences in care required by this growing subpopulation. Although the current research suggests that good outcomes can be predicted when appropriately optimized patients with cancer undergo lower extremity total joint arthroplasty, similar studies for TSA are lacking. The primary study question was to examine whether a history of cancer was associated with an increased rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after TSA. Secondarily, we sought to examine any association between a history of prostate and breast cancer and surgical or medical complications after TSA. METHODS:Using a national insurance database, male patients with a history of prostate cancer and female patients with a history of breast cancer undergoing anatomic TSA for primary osteoarthritis were identified and compared with control subjects matched 3:1 based on age, sex, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco use. Patients with a history of VTE and patients who underwent reverse TSA or hemiarthroplasty were excluded. RESULTS:Female patients with a history of breast cancer and male patients with a history of prostate cancer undergoing TSA had significantly higher incidences of acute VTE (including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) compared with matched control subjects (female patients: odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.81; P = 0.024 and male patients: odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.79; P = 0.023). No significant differences were noted in the incidences of any other complications assessed. CONCLUSION:Although a personal history of these malignancies does represent a statistically significant risk factor for acute VTE after anatomic TSA, the overall VTE rate remains modest and acceptable. The rates of other surgical and medical complications are not significantly increased in patients with a history of these cancers after TSA compared with control subjects.