A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Effectiveness of Cognitive Training for Anterior Approach Total Hip Arthroplasty.
- 作者列表："Logishetty K","Gofton WT","Rudran B","Beaulé PE","Gupte CM","Cobb JP
BACKGROUND:For total hip arthroplasty (THA), cognitive training prior to performing real surgery may be an effective adjunct alongside simulation to shorten the learning curve. This study sought to create a cognitive training tool (CTT) to perform anterior approach (AA)-THA, which was validated by expert surgeons, and test its use as a training tool compared with conventional material. METHODS:We employed a modified Delphi method with 4 expert surgeons from 3 international centers of excellence. Surgeons were independently observed performing THA before undergoing semistructured cognitive task analysis (CTA) and before completing successive rounds of surveys until a consensus was reached. Thirty-six surgical residents (postgraduate year [PGY]-1 through PGY-4) were randomized to cognitive training or training with a standard operation manual with surgical videos before performing a simulated AA-THA. RESULTS:The consensus CTA defined THA in 11 phases, in which were embedded 46 basic steps, 36 decision points, and 42 critical errors and linked strategies. This CTA was mapped onto an open-access web-based CTT. Surgeons who prepared with the CTT performed a simulated THA 35% more quickly (time, mean 28 versus 38 minutes) with 69% fewer errors in instrument selection (mean 29 versus 49 instances), and required 92% fewer prompts (mean 13 versus 25 instances). They were more accurate in acetabular cup orientation (inclination error, mean 8° versus 10°; anteversion error, mean 14° versus 22°). CONCLUSIONS:This validated CTT for arthroplasty provides structure for competency-based learning. It is more effective at preparing orthopaedic trainees for a complex procedure than conventional materials, as well as for learning sequence, instrumentation utilization, and motor skills. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Cognitive training combines education on decision-making, knowledge, and technical skill. It is an inexpensive technique to teach surgeons to perform hip arthroplasty and is more effective than current preparation methods.
背景: 对于全髋关节置换术 (THA)，进行真实手术前的认知训练可能是缩短学习曲线的有效辅助手段。本研究试图创建一种认知训练工具 (CTT) 来进行前路手术 (AA)-THA，该工具经过专家外科医生的验证，和test使用作为培训工具，比常规材料. 方法: 我们与来自 3 个国际卓越中心的 4 名专家外科医生采用了改良的德尔菲法。在接受半结构式认知任务分析 (CTA) 之前和完成连续几轮调查之前，独立观察外科医生进行THA，直到达成共识。36 名外科住院医师 (研究生 [PGY]-1 至PGY-4) 在进行模拟AA-THA之前，随机接受认知训练或使用带有手术视频的标准操作手册进行培训。 结果: 共识CTA定义了 11 个阶段的THA，其中嵌入了 46 个基本步骤，36 个决策点，42 个关键错误和链接策略。将该CTA映射到基于开放访问网络的CTT上。用CTT准备的外科医生更快地进行了 35% 次模拟THA (时间，平均 28 分钟对 38 分钟)，器械选择误差减少 69% (平均 29 例对 49 例)，并且需要减少 92% 的提示 (平均 13 例vs 25 例)。它们在髋臼杯方向上更准确 (倾斜误差，平均 8 ° 与 10 °; 前倾角误差，平均 14 ° 与 22 °)。 结论: 这一经过验证的CTT为基于能力的学习提供了结构。与传统材料相比，它更有效地为骨科学员准备复杂的手术，以及学习顺序、器械使用和运动技能。 临床相关性: 认知训练结合了决策、知识和技术技能方面的教育。教外科医生进行髋关节置换术是一种廉价的技术，比目前的准备方法更有效。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common complication after orthopedic surgery, which is not conducive to the prognosis of the elderly. AIMS:We performed this study to investigate the effects of oxycodone applied for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) on postoperative cognitive function in elderly patients after total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS:Ninety-nine participants were enrolled and allocated into two groups: oxycodone group (group O) and sufentanil group (group S). The primary outcome was the incidence of POCD, diagnosed according to the changes in the Mini-mental status examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. The secondary outcomes included the plasma levels of S-100B protein and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), the amount of postoperative analgesic consumption and the incidence of adverse reactions. RESULTS:The incidence of POCD was significantly lower in patients receiving oxycodone up to the 3rd postoperative day (POD, 1st POD 27.3% vs. 51.1%, P = 0.021; 3rd POD 20.5% vs. 40.0%, P = 0.045), as compared to patients receiving sufentanil. The MMSE and MoCA scores of both groups decreased to varying degrees. However, compared with group S, the MMSE scores at 1st POD, 3rd POD, 5th POD and 7st POD in group O were higher than that in group S, while MoCA scores at 1st POD, 3rd POD and 5th POD in group O were higher. Compared with group S, the plasma levels of S-100B protein in group O at 4 h, 8 h, 12 h post-surgery were lower. While the plasma levels of NSE in group O at 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, 24 h post-surgery were lower. Number of PCIA boluses and consumption of analgesic drug during the first two POD were similar between two groups. However, postoperative incidence of nausea, vomiting and pruritus was significantly lower in patients receiving oxycodone. CONCLUSION:Oxycodone applied for PCIA in elderly patients after THA could reduce the incidence of POCD, improve postoperative cognitive function and decrease the adverse reactions.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Primary treatment for Blount disease has changed in the last decade from osteotomies or staples to tension band plate (TBP)-guided hemiepiphysiodesis. However, implant-related issues have been frequently reported with Blount cases. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the surgical failure rates of TBP in Blount disease and characterize predictors for failure. METHODS:We performed an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective chart-review of pediatric patients with Blount disease to evaluate the results of TBP from 2008 to 2017 and a systematic literature review. Blount cases defined as pathologic tibia-vara with HKA (hip-knee-ankle) axis and MDA (metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle) deviations ≥11 degrees were included in the analysis. Surgical failure was categorized as mechanical and functional failure. We studied both patient and implant-related characteristics and compared our results with a systematic review. RESULTS:In 61 limbs of 40 patients with mean follow-up of 38 months, we found 41% (25/61) overall surgical failure rate and 11% (7/61) mechanical failure rate corresponding to 11% to 100% (range) and 0% to 50% (range) in 8 other studies. Statistical comparison between our surgical failure and nonfailure groups showed significant differences in deformity (P=0.001), plate material (P=0.042), and obesity (P=0.044) in univariate analysis. The odds of surgical failure increased by 1.2 times with severe deformity and 5.9 times with titanium TBP in the multivariate analysis after individual risk-factor adjustment. All 7 mechanical failures involved breakage of cannulated screws on the metaphyseal side. CONCLUSIONS:Most of the studies have reported high failure rates of TBP in Blount cases. Besides patient-related risk factors like obesity and deformity, titanium TBP seems to be an independent risk factor for failure. Solid screws were protective for mechanical failure, but not for functional failure. In conclusion, efficacy of TBP still needs to be proven in Blount disease and implant design may warrant reassessment. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level III-retrospective comparative study with a systematic review.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:As cancer treatments continue to improve the overall survival rates, more patients with a history of cancer will present for anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Therefore, it is essential for orthopaedic surgeons to understand the differences in care required by this growing subpopulation. Although the current research suggests that good outcomes can be predicted when appropriately optimized patients with cancer undergo lower extremity total joint arthroplasty, similar studies for TSA are lacking. The primary study question was to examine whether a history of cancer was associated with an increased rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after TSA. Secondarily, we sought to examine any association between a history of prostate and breast cancer and surgical or medical complications after TSA. METHODS:Using a national insurance database, male patients with a history of prostate cancer and female patients with a history of breast cancer undergoing anatomic TSA for primary osteoarthritis were identified and compared with control subjects matched 3:1 based on age, sex, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco use. Patients with a history of VTE and patients who underwent reverse TSA or hemiarthroplasty were excluded. RESULTS:Female patients with a history of breast cancer and male patients with a history of prostate cancer undergoing TSA had significantly higher incidences of acute VTE (including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) compared with matched control subjects (female patients: odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.81; P = 0.024 and male patients: odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.79; P = 0.023). No significant differences were noted in the incidences of any other complications assessed. CONCLUSION:Although a personal history of these malignancies does represent a statistically significant risk factor for acute VTE after anatomic TSA, the overall VTE rate remains modest and acceptable. The rates of other surgical and medical complications are not significantly increased in patients with a history of these cancers after TSA compared with control subjects.