Do Medicare Accountable Care Organizations Reduce Disparities After Spinal Fracture?
- 作者列表："Lipa SA","Sturgeon DJ","Blucher JA","Harris MB","Schoenfeld AJ
BACKGROUND:National changes in health care disparities within the setting of trauma care have not been examined within Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) or non-ACOs. We sought to examine the impact of ACOs on post-treatment outcomes (in-hospital mortality, 90-day complications, and readmissions), as well as surgical intervention among whites and nonwhites treated for spinal fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We identified all beneficiaries treated for spinal fractures between 2009 and 2014 using national Medicare fee for service claims data. Claims were used to identify sociodemographic and clinical criteria, receipt of surgery and in-hospital mortality, 90-day complications, and readmissions. Multivariable logistic regression analysis accounting for all confounders was used to determine the effect of race/ethnicity on outcomes. Nonwhites were compared with whites treated in non-ACOs between 2009 and 2011 as the referent. RESULTS:We identified 245,704 patients who were treated for spinal fractures. Two percent of the cohort received care in an ACO, whereas 7% were nonwhite. We found that disparities in the use of surgical fixation for spinal fractures were present in non-ACOs over the period 2009-2014 but did not exist in the context of care provided through ACOs (odds ratio [OR] 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44, 1.28). A disparity in the development of complications existed for nonwhites in non-ACOs (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.01, 1.17) that was not encountered among nonwhites receiving care in ACOs (OR 1.32; 95% CI 0.90, 1.95). An existing disparity in readmission rates for nonwhites in ACOs over 2009-2011 (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.01, 1.80) was eliminated in the period 2012-2014 (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.65, 1.09). CONCLUSIONS:Our work reinforces the idea that ACOs could improve health care disparities among nonwhites. There is also the potential that as ACOs become more familiar with care integration and streamlined delivery of services, further improvements in disparities could be realized.
背景: 创伤护理环境中医疗保健差异的国家变化尚未在责任护理组织 (ACOs) 或非ACOs中进行检查。我们试图研究ACOs对治疗后结局 (住院死亡率、 90 天并发症和再入院) 的影响。以及治疗脊柱骨折的白人和非白人的手术干预。 材料和方法: 我们使用国家医疗保险服务费用索赔数据确定了 2009 年至 2014 年间治疗脊柱骨折的所有受益人。索赔被用来确定社会人口统计学和临床标准、接受手术和住院死亡率、 90 天并发症和再入院。采用多变量logistic回归分析 (考虑所有混杂因素) 确定种族/民族对结局的影响。将非白人与 2009 年至 2011 年间非ACOs治疗的白人进行比较。 结果: 我们确定了 245,704 例脊柱骨折患者。2% 的队列在ACO中接受治疗，而 7% 的非白人。我们发现在 2009-2014 期间，非ACOs在使用手术固定治疗脊柱骨折方面存在差异，但在通过ACOs提供的护理背景下不存在 (优势比 [或] 0.75; 95% 置信区间 [CI] 0.44，1.28)。非ACOs中非白人的并发症发展存在差异 (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.01，1.17)，在接受ACOs治疗的非白人中没有遇到 (OR 1.32; 95% CI 0.90，1.95)。ACOs中超过 2009-2011 的非白人再入院率存在差异 (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.01，1.80) 在 2012-2014 期间被消除 (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.65，1.09)。 结论: 我们的工作强化了ACOs可以改善非白人医疗保健差异的理念。还有一种潜力是，随着ACOs越来越熟悉护理整合和简化服务的提供，差距可能会进一步改善。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common complication after orthopedic surgery, which is not conducive to the prognosis of the elderly. AIMS:We performed this study to investigate the effects of oxycodone applied for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) on postoperative cognitive function in elderly patients after total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS:Ninety-nine participants were enrolled and allocated into two groups: oxycodone group (group O) and sufentanil group (group S). The primary outcome was the incidence of POCD, diagnosed according to the changes in the Mini-mental status examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. The secondary outcomes included the plasma levels of S-100B protein and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), the amount of postoperative analgesic consumption and the incidence of adverse reactions. RESULTS:The incidence of POCD was significantly lower in patients receiving oxycodone up to the 3rd postoperative day (POD, 1st POD 27.3% vs. 51.1%, P = 0.021; 3rd POD 20.5% vs. 40.0%, P = 0.045), as compared to patients receiving sufentanil. The MMSE and MoCA scores of both groups decreased to varying degrees. However, compared with group S, the MMSE scores at 1st POD, 3rd POD, 5th POD and 7st POD in group O were higher than that in group S, while MoCA scores at 1st POD, 3rd POD and 5th POD in group O were higher. Compared with group S, the plasma levels of S-100B protein in group O at 4 h, 8 h, 12 h post-surgery were lower. While the plasma levels of NSE in group O at 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, 24 h post-surgery were lower. Number of PCIA boluses and consumption of analgesic drug during the first two POD were similar between two groups. However, postoperative incidence of nausea, vomiting and pruritus was significantly lower in patients receiving oxycodone. CONCLUSION:Oxycodone applied for PCIA in elderly patients after THA could reduce the incidence of POCD, improve postoperative cognitive function and decrease the adverse reactions.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Primary treatment for Blount disease has changed in the last decade from osteotomies or staples to tension band plate (TBP)-guided hemiepiphysiodesis. However, implant-related issues have been frequently reported with Blount cases. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the surgical failure rates of TBP in Blount disease and characterize predictors for failure. METHODS:We performed an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective chart-review of pediatric patients with Blount disease to evaluate the results of TBP from 2008 to 2017 and a systematic literature review. Blount cases defined as pathologic tibia-vara with HKA (hip-knee-ankle) axis and MDA (metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle) deviations ≥11 degrees were included in the analysis. Surgical failure was categorized as mechanical and functional failure. We studied both patient and implant-related characteristics and compared our results with a systematic review. RESULTS:In 61 limbs of 40 patients with mean follow-up of 38 months, we found 41% (25/61) overall surgical failure rate and 11% (7/61) mechanical failure rate corresponding to 11% to 100% (range) and 0% to 50% (range) in 8 other studies. Statistical comparison between our surgical failure and nonfailure groups showed significant differences in deformity (P=0.001), plate material (P=0.042), and obesity (P=0.044) in univariate analysis. The odds of surgical failure increased by 1.2 times with severe deformity and 5.9 times with titanium TBP in the multivariate analysis after individual risk-factor adjustment. All 7 mechanical failures involved breakage of cannulated screws on the metaphyseal side. CONCLUSIONS:Most of the studies have reported high failure rates of TBP in Blount cases. Besides patient-related risk factors like obesity and deformity, titanium TBP seems to be an independent risk factor for failure. Solid screws were protective for mechanical failure, but not for functional failure. In conclusion, efficacy of TBP still needs to be proven in Blount disease and implant design may warrant reassessment. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level III-retrospective comparative study with a systematic review.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:As cancer treatments continue to improve the overall survival rates, more patients with a history of cancer will present for anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Therefore, it is essential for orthopaedic surgeons to understand the differences in care required by this growing subpopulation. Although the current research suggests that good outcomes can be predicted when appropriately optimized patients with cancer undergo lower extremity total joint arthroplasty, similar studies for TSA are lacking. The primary study question was to examine whether a history of cancer was associated with an increased rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after TSA. Secondarily, we sought to examine any association between a history of prostate and breast cancer and surgical or medical complications after TSA. METHODS:Using a national insurance database, male patients with a history of prostate cancer and female patients with a history of breast cancer undergoing anatomic TSA for primary osteoarthritis were identified and compared with control subjects matched 3:1 based on age, sex, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco use. Patients with a history of VTE and patients who underwent reverse TSA or hemiarthroplasty were excluded. RESULTS:Female patients with a history of breast cancer and male patients with a history of prostate cancer undergoing TSA had significantly higher incidences of acute VTE (including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) compared with matched control subjects (female patients: odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.81; P = 0.024 and male patients: odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.79; P = 0.023). No significant differences were noted in the incidences of any other complications assessed. CONCLUSION:Although a personal history of these malignancies does represent a statistically significant risk factor for acute VTE after anatomic TSA, the overall VTE rate remains modest and acceptable. The rates of other surgical and medical complications are not significantly increased in patients with a history of these cancers after TSA compared with control subjects.