Free Fibula Flap for Restoration of Spinal Stability after Oncologic Vertebrectomy Is Predictive of Bony Union.
- 作者列表："Mericli AF","Boukovalas S","Rhines LD","Adelman DM","Hanasono MM","Chang EI
BACKGROUND:Nonvascular bone grafts larger than 4 cm have a 50 percent nonunion rate in spine surgery. Vascular bone flaps are one potential solution; however, their utility in spine surgery has not been fully elucidated. The authors hypothesized that the addition of a free fibula flap after oncologic vertebrectomy would safely potentiate bone union. METHODS:The authors performed a retrospective analysis, including all patients who underwent oncologic vertebrectomy for a primary bone tumor at their institution from 2002 to 2017. Patients were divided into two groups: those who underwent spinal reconstruction with nonvascularized bone graft and an alloplastic cage (control) and those whose reconstruction was augmented with a free fibula flap. RESULTS:Forty patients were included (free fibula flap, n = 16; control, n = 24). Adjuvant therapies and medical comorbidities were similar between the two groups. Chordoma was the most common abnormality in both groups. The median number of vertebrae resected in the free fibula flap group was two, compared to one in the cage group (p = 0.08). Despite the smaller mean resection size, there were significantly more nonunions (41.7 percent versus 6.3 percent; p = 0.02), instrumentation complications (33.3 percent versus 6.3 percent; p = 0.04), and neurologic complications (25 percent versus 0 percent; p = 0.03) in the control group. Multivariate logistic regression revealed a control reconstruction significantly predictive of nonunion (OR, 57.04; 95 percent CI, 1.17 to 2773; p = 0.04). Free fibula flap patients demonstrated evidence of bony union at a mean of 4.8 months versus 22.4 months in the control group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Free fibula flap surgery in spinal reconstruction after oncologic vertebrectomy is safe and effective. Free fibula flap surgery is independently protective against nonunion and is associated with more rapid union compared with the control. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Therapeutic, III.
背景: 在脊柱外科手术中，大于 4 cm的非血管骨移植物有 50% 的骨不连率。血管骨瓣是一种潜在的解决方案; 然而，它们在脊柱手术中的效用尚未完全阐明。作者假设在肿瘤椎体切除术后增加游离腓骨瓣可安全地加强骨愈合。 方法: 作者进行了回顾性分析，包括 2002 年至 2017 年在其机构接受原发性骨肿瘤椎体切除术的所有患者。将患者分为两组: 采用非血管化骨移植和成体笼 (对照) 进行脊柱重建的患者和采用游离腓骨瓣增强重建的患者。 结果: 共纳入 40 例患者 (游离腓骨瓣，n = 16; 对照，n = 24)。两组的辅助治疗和内科合并症相似。脊索瘤是两组中最常见的异常。游离腓骨瓣组切除的椎体中位数为 2 个，而cage组为 1 个 (p = 0.08)。尽管平均切除大小较小，但骨不连明显较多 (41.7% 对 6.3%; p = 0。0 2) 、器械并发症 (33.3% 对 6.3%; p = 0。0 4)，和神经系统并发症发生率 (25% vs 0; p = 0.0 3) 在对照组中。多变量logistic回归显示对照重建显著预测骨不连 (OR，57.04; 95% CI，1.17 ~ 2773; p = 0.04)。游离腓骨瓣患者在平均 4.8 个月时表现出骨性愈合的证据，而对照组为 22.4 个月 (p <0.001)。 结论: 游离腓骨瓣在脊柱肿瘤椎体切除术后重建中的应用是安全有效的。游离腓骨瓣手术独立预防骨不连，与对照相比愈合更快。 临床问题/证据水平: 治疗性，III。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common complication after orthopedic surgery, which is not conducive to the prognosis of the elderly. AIMS:We performed this study to investigate the effects of oxycodone applied for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) on postoperative cognitive function in elderly patients after total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS:Ninety-nine participants were enrolled and allocated into two groups: oxycodone group (group O) and sufentanil group (group S). The primary outcome was the incidence of POCD, diagnosed according to the changes in the Mini-mental status examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. The secondary outcomes included the plasma levels of S-100B protein and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), the amount of postoperative analgesic consumption and the incidence of adverse reactions. RESULTS:The incidence of POCD was significantly lower in patients receiving oxycodone up to the 3rd postoperative day (POD, 1st POD 27.3% vs. 51.1%, P = 0.021; 3rd POD 20.5% vs. 40.0%, P = 0.045), as compared to patients receiving sufentanil. The MMSE and MoCA scores of both groups decreased to varying degrees. However, compared with group S, the MMSE scores at 1st POD, 3rd POD, 5th POD and 7st POD in group O were higher than that in group S, while MoCA scores at 1st POD, 3rd POD and 5th POD in group O were higher. Compared with group S, the plasma levels of S-100B protein in group O at 4 h, 8 h, 12 h post-surgery were lower. While the plasma levels of NSE in group O at 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, 24 h post-surgery were lower. Number of PCIA boluses and consumption of analgesic drug during the first two POD were similar between two groups. However, postoperative incidence of nausea, vomiting and pruritus was significantly lower in patients receiving oxycodone. CONCLUSION:Oxycodone applied for PCIA in elderly patients after THA could reduce the incidence of POCD, improve postoperative cognitive function and decrease the adverse reactions.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Primary treatment for Blount disease has changed in the last decade from osteotomies or staples to tension band plate (TBP)-guided hemiepiphysiodesis. However, implant-related issues have been frequently reported with Blount cases. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the surgical failure rates of TBP in Blount disease and characterize predictors for failure. METHODS:We performed an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective chart-review of pediatric patients with Blount disease to evaluate the results of TBP from 2008 to 2017 and a systematic literature review. Blount cases defined as pathologic tibia-vara with HKA (hip-knee-ankle) axis and MDA (metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle) deviations ≥11 degrees were included in the analysis. Surgical failure was categorized as mechanical and functional failure. We studied both patient and implant-related characteristics and compared our results with a systematic review. RESULTS:In 61 limbs of 40 patients with mean follow-up of 38 months, we found 41% (25/61) overall surgical failure rate and 11% (7/61) mechanical failure rate corresponding to 11% to 100% (range) and 0% to 50% (range) in 8 other studies. Statistical comparison between our surgical failure and nonfailure groups showed significant differences in deformity (P=0.001), plate material (P=0.042), and obesity (P=0.044) in univariate analysis. The odds of surgical failure increased by 1.2 times with severe deformity and 5.9 times with titanium TBP in the multivariate analysis after individual risk-factor adjustment. All 7 mechanical failures involved breakage of cannulated screws on the metaphyseal side. CONCLUSIONS:Most of the studies have reported high failure rates of TBP in Blount cases. Besides patient-related risk factors like obesity and deformity, titanium TBP seems to be an independent risk factor for failure. Solid screws were protective for mechanical failure, but not for functional failure. In conclusion, efficacy of TBP still needs to be proven in Blount disease and implant design may warrant reassessment. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level III-retrospective comparative study with a systematic review.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:As cancer treatments continue to improve the overall survival rates, more patients with a history of cancer will present for anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Therefore, it is essential for orthopaedic surgeons to understand the differences in care required by this growing subpopulation. Although the current research suggests that good outcomes can be predicted when appropriately optimized patients with cancer undergo lower extremity total joint arthroplasty, similar studies for TSA are lacking. The primary study question was to examine whether a history of cancer was associated with an increased rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after TSA. Secondarily, we sought to examine any association between a history of prostate and breast cancer and surgical or medical complications after TSA. METHODS:Using a national insurance database, male patients with a history of prostate cancer and female patients with a history of breast cancer undergoing anatomic TSA for primary osteoarthritis were identified and compared with control subjects matched 3:1 based on age, sex, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco use. Patients with a history of VTE and patients who underwent reverse TSA or hemiarthroplasty were excluded. RESULTS:Female patients with a history of breast cancer and male patients with a history of prostate cancer undergoing TSA had significantly higher incidences of acute VTE (including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) compared with matched control subjects (female patients: odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.81; P = 0.024 and male patients: odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.79; P = 0.023). No significant differences were noted in the incidences of any other complications assessed. CONCLUSION:Although a personal history of these malignancies does represent a statistically significant risk factor for acute VTE after anatomic TSA, the overall VTE rate remains modest and acceptable. The rates of other surgical and medical complications are not significantly increased in patients with a history of these cancers after TSA compared with control subjects.