Quadriceps Muscle Size Following ACL Injury and Reconstruction: A Systematic Review.
- 作者列表："Birchmeier T","Lisee C","Kane K","Brazier B","Triplett A","Kuenze C
:Image-based assessments of quadriceps muscle size facilitate examination of structural changes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction (ACLR). Understanding the effects of ACLR on muscle size measures may aid in clarifying the contribution of quadriceps atrophy toward quadriceps strength. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature examining the effects of ACLR on quadriceps muscle volume and cross-sectional area (CSA). An online database search was conducted using Web of Science, SportDISCUS, PubMed (Medline), CINHAL (EBSCO), and Cochrane Library limited to articles published after January 1, 1980. Means and standard deviations were extracted for the ACLR limb and the contralateral limb, and sample characteristics from relevant articles. Magnitude of between limb differences were assessed using pooled effect sizes (Hedge's g) and 95% confidence intervals. Eleven articles (five CSA, six muscle volume) were included in this systematic review. Included studies reported negative effective sizes, indicating that the ACLR limb was smaller in CSA or muscle volume compared with the contralateral limb; however, 36% of the included articles reported meaningful difference between the limbs. Quadriceps atrophy may occur following ACL injury and persist after rehabilitation, however, the magnitude of these reductions may not be clinically meaningful and may only partially explain the persistent quadriceps weakness that is ubiquitous among this patient population. © 2019 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 38:598-608, 2020.
: 基于图像的股四头肌大小评估有助于检查前交叉韧带 (ACL) 损伤和重建 (ACLR) 后的结构变化。了解ACLR对肌肉大小测量的影响可能有助于阐明股四头肌萎缩对股四头肌力量的贡献。本研究的目的是系统回顾研究ACLR对股四头肌体积和横截面积 (CSA) 影响的文献。使用Web of Science、SportDISCUS、PubMed (Medline) 、CINHAL (EBSCO) 和Cochrane Library limited对 1980 年 1 月 1 日后发表的文章进行在线数据库检索。提取ACLR肢体和对侧肢体的平均值和标准差，并从相关文章中提取样本特征。使用合并效应量 (Hedge's g) 和 95% 置信区间评估肢体间差异的大小。本系统综述纳入 11 篇文献 (5 篇CSA，6 篇肌肉体积)。纳入的研究报告了负面的有效大小，表明与对侧肢体相比，ACLR肢体在CSA或肌肉体积上较小; 然而，36% 的纳入文章报告了肢体之间有意义的差异。ACL损伤后可能发生股四头肌萎缩，康复后持续存在，然而，这些减少的幅度可能没有临床意义，只能部分解释在该患者人群中普遍存在的持续性股四头肌无力。©2019 骨科研究学会。由Wiley journals，Inc.发表J Orthop Res 38:598-608，2020。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common complication after orthopedic surgery, which is not conducive to the prognosis of the elderly. AIMS:We performed this study to investigate the effects of oxycodone applied for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) on postoperative cognitive function in elderly patients after total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS:Ninety-nine participants were enrolled and allocated into two groups: oxycodone group (group O) and sufentanil group (group S). The primary outcome was the incidence of POCD, diagnosed according to the changes in the Mini-mental status examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. The secondary outcomes included the plasma levels of S-100B protein and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), the amount of postoperative analgesic consumption and the incidence of adverse reactions. RESULTS:The incidence of POCD was significantly lower in patients receiving oxycodone up to the 3rd postoperative day (POD, 1st POD 27.3% vs. 51.1%, P = 0.021; 3rd POD 20.5% vs. 40.0%, P = 0.045), as compared to patients receiving sufentanil. The MMSE and MoCA scores of both groups decreased to varying degrees. However, compared with group S, the MMSE scores at 1st POD, 3rd POD, 5th POD and 7st POD in group O were higher than that in group S, while MoCA scores at 1st POD, 3rd POD and 5th POD in group O were higher. Compared with group S, the plasma levels of S-100B protein in group O at 4 h, 8 h, 12 h post-surgery were lower. While the plasma levels of NSE in group O at 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, 24 h post-surgery were lower. Number of PCIA boluses and consumption of analgesic drug during the first two POD were similar between two groups. However, postoperative incidence of nausea, vomiting and pruritus was significantly lower in patients receiving oxycodone. CONCLUSION:Oxycodone applied for PCIA in elderly patients after THA could reduce the incidence of POCD, improve postoperative cognitive function and decrease the adverse reactions.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Primary treatment for Blount disease has changed in the last decade from osteotomies or staples to tension band plate (TBP)-guided hemiepiphysiodesis. However, implant-related issues have been frequently reported with Blount cases. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the surgical failure rates of TBP in Blount disease and characterize predictors for failure. METHODS:We performed an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective chart-review of pediatric patients with Blount disease to evaluate the results of TBP from 2008 to 2017 and a systematic literature review. Blount cases defined as pathologic tibia-vara with HKA (hip-knee-ankle) axis and MDA (metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle) deviations ≥11 degrees were included in the analysis. Surgical failure was categorized as mechanical and functional failure. We studied both patient and implant-related characteristics and compared our results with a systematic review. RESULTS:In 61 limbs of 40 patients with mean follow-up of 38 months, we found 41% (25/61) overall surgical failure rate and 11% (7/61) mechanical failure rate corresponding to 11% to 100% (range) and 0% to 50% (range) in 8 other studies. Statistical comparison between our surgical failure and nonfailure groups showed significant differences in deformity (P=0.001), plate material (P=0.042), and obesity (P=0.044) in univariate analysis. The odds of surgical failure increased by 1.2 times with severe deformity and 5.9 times with titanium TBP in the multivariate analysis after individual risk-factor adjustment. All 7 mechanical failures involved breakage of cannulated screws on the metaphyseal side. CONCLUSIONS:Most of the studies have reported high failure rates of TBP in Blount cases. Besides patient-related risk factors like obesity and deformity, titanium TBP seems to be an independent risk factor for failure. Solid screws were protective for mechanical failure, but not for functional failure. In conclusion, efficacy of TBP still needs to be proven in Blount disease and implant design may warrant reassessment. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level III-retrospective comparative study with a systematic review.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:As cancer treatments continue to improve the overall survival rates, more patients with a history of cancer will present for anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Therefore, it is essential for orthopaedic surgeons to understand the differences in care required by this growing subpopulation. Although the current research suggests that good outcomes can be predicted when appropriately optimized patients with cancer undergo lower extremity total joint arthroplasty, similar studies for TSA are lacking. The primary study question was to examine whether a history of cancer was associated with an increased rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after TSA. Secondarily, we sought to examine any association between a history of prostate and breast cancer and surgical or medical complications after TSA. METHODS:Using a national insurance database, male patients with a history of prostate cancer and female patients with a history of breast cancer undergoing anatomic TSA for primary osteoarthritis were identified and compared with control subjects matched 3:1 based on age, sex, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco use. Patients with a history of VTE and patients who underwent reverse TSA or hemiarthroplasty were excluded. RESULTS:Female patients with a history of breast cancer and male patients with a history of prostate cancer undergoing TSA had significantly higher incidences of acute VTE (including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) compared with matched control subjects (female patients: odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.81; P = 0.024 and male patients: odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.79; P = 0.023). No significant differences were noted in the incidences of any other complications assessed. CONCLUSION:Although a personal history of these malignancies does represent a statistically significant risk factor for acute VTE after anatomic TSA, the overall VTE rate remains modest and acceptable. The rates of other surgical and medical complications are not significantly increased in patients with a history of these cancers after TSA compared with control subjects.