Infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages is involved in tumor programmed death-ligand 1 expression in early lung adenocarcinoma.
肿瘤相关巨噬细胞的浸润参与早期肺腺癌中肿瘤程序性死亡配体 1 的表达。
- 作者列表："Shima T","Shimoda M","Shigenobu T","Ohtsuka T","Nishimura T","Emoto K","Hayashi Y","Iwasaki T","Abe T","Asamura H","Kanai Y
:Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is an immune modulator that promotes immunosuppression by binding to programmed death-1 of T-lymphocytes. Although tumor cell PD-L1 expression has been shown to be associated with the clinical response to anti-PD-L1 antibodies, its concise regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we evaluated the associations of tumor PD-L1 expression and immune cell infiltrating patterns in 146 cases of early lung adenocarcinoma (AC) to investigate the possible extrinsic regulation of tumor PD-L1 by immune cells. Using immunohistochemistry, cell surface PD-L1 expression in tumor cells was observed in 18.5% of stage 0-IA lung AC patients. Tumor PD-L1 positivity was significantly associated with stromal invasion, which was accompanied by increased tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Among these immune cells, TAM and CD8+ T cells significantly accumulated in PD-L1-positive carcinoma cell areas, which showed a tumor cell nest-infiltrating pattern. Although CD8+ T cells are known to induce tumor PD-L1 expression via interferon-ɣ production, the increased TAM within tumors were also associated with tumor cell PD-L1 positivity, independently of CD8+ T cell infiltration. Our in vitro experiments revealed that PD-L1 expression in lung cancer cell lines was significantly upregulated by co-culture with M2-differentiated macrophages; expression of PD-L1 was reduced to baseline levels following treatment with a transforming growth factor-β inhibitor. These results demonstrated that tumor-infiltrating TAM are extrinsic regulators of tumor PD-L1 expression, indicating that combination therapy targeting both tumor PD-L1 and stromal TAM might be a possible strategy for effective treatment of lung cancer.
: 程序性死亡配体 1 (PD-L1) 是通过结合T淋巴细胞的程序性死亡-1 来促进免疫抑制的免疫调节剂。尽管已显示肿瘤细胞PD-L1 的表达与对anti-PD-L1 抗体的临床反应相关，但其简洁的调节机制仍然难以捉摸。在本研究中，我们评估了 146 例早期肺腺癌 (AC) 中肿瘤PD-L1 表达与免疫细胞浸润模式的相关性，以探讨免疫细胞对肿瘤PD-L1 的可能外在调节。使用免疫组织化学，在 18.5% 的 0-IA期肺AC患者中观察到肿瘤细胞中的细胞表面PD-L1 表达。肿瘤PD-L1 阳性与间质侵袭显著相关，其伴随肿瘤相关巨噬细胞 (TAM) 、CD8 + 细胞毒性T细胞和FoxP3 + 调节性T细胞的增加。在这些免疫细胞中，TAM和CD8 + T细胞在PD-L1-positive个癌细胞区域中显著积累，其显示出肿瘤细胞巢浸润模式。尽管已知CD8 + T细胞通过干扰素产生诱导肿瘤PD-L1 表达，但肿瘤内增加的TAM也与肿瘤细胞PD-L1 阳性相关，与CD8 + T细胞浸润无关。我们的体外实验表明，通过与PD-L1 巨噬细胞共培养，肺癌细胞系中M2-differentiated的表达显著上调; 在用转化生长因子-β 抑制剂处理后，PD-L1 的表达降低至基线水平。这些结果证明肿瘤浸润TAM是肿瘤PD-L1 表达的外在调节剂，表明靶向肿瘤PD-L1 和基质TAM的联合疗法可能是有效治疗肺癌的可能策略。
METHODS::Pulmonary artery sling is a rare congenital anomaly of the origin and course of the left pulmonary artery. Patients with this condition typically present with respiratory failure in young infancy, and asymptomatic cases are uncommon. We describe the case of an adult patient with a lung adenocarcinoma of the right upper lobe, extending into the hilum and superior mediastinum, and with a previously unknown pulmonary artery sling anomaly. The local invasiveness of the tumor and the peculiar vascular anatomy contributed to a unique surgical scenario, wherein multiple reconstructive procedures were required.
METHODS::Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have higher risk of developing lung cancer, for example, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and show poor prognosis, while the molecular basis has not been fully investigated. Here we conducted DNA methylome analysis of lung SCC using 20 SCC samples with/without IPF, and noncancerous lung tissue samples from smokers/nonsmokers, using Infinium HumanMethylation 450K array. SCC was clustered into low- and high-methylation epigenotypes by hierarchical clustering analysis. Genes hypermethylated in SCC significantly included genes targeted by polycomb repressive complex in embryonic stem cells, and genes associated with Gene Ontology terms, for example, "transcription" and "cell adhesion," while genes hypermethylated specifically in high-methylation subgroup significantly included genes associated with "negative regulation of growth." Low-methylation subgroup significantly correlated with IPF (78%, vs. 17% in high-methylation subgroup, p = 0.04), and the correlation was validated by additional Infinium analysis of SCC samples (n = 44 in total), and data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 390). The correlation between low-methylation subgroup and IPF was further validated by quantitative methylation analysis of marker genes commonly hypermethylated in SCC (HOXA2, HOXA9 and PCDHGB6), and markers specifically hypermethylated in high-methylation subgroup (DLEC1, CFTR, MT1M, CRIP3 and ALDH7A1) in 77 SCC cases using pyrosequencing (p = 0.003). Furthermore, low-methylation epigenotype significantly correlated with poorer prognosis among all SCC patients, or among patients without IPF. Multivariate analysis showed that low-methylation epigenotype is an independent predictor of poor prognosis. These may suggest that lung SCC could be stratified into molecular subtypes with distinct prognosis, and low-methylation lung SCC that significantly correlates with IPF shows unfavorable outcome.
METHODS::The role of Fyn-related kinase (FRK) in malignant tumors remains controversial. Our study investigated the function of FRK in lung cancer. Immunohistochemistry staining and generating a knockout of FRK by CRISPR/Cas9 in H1299 (FRK-KO-H1299) cells were strategies used to explore the role of FRK. Immunohistochemistry staining indicated that FRK expression was elevated in 223 lung cancer tissues compared to 26 distant normal lung tissues. FRK contributed to poor survival status in lung cancer patients and acted as a predictor for poor prognosis of lung cancer. Knockout of FRK by CRISPR/Cas9 markedly inhibited proliferation, invasion, colony formation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in the lung cancer cell line H1299. Further exploration indicated that FRK-KO damaged the stemness phenotype of H1299 by inhibiting CD44 and CD133 expression. Seahorse detection and a U-13 C flux assay revealed that FRK-KO induced metabolism reprogramming by inhibiting the Warburg effect and changing the energy type in H1299 cells. Epidermal growth factor stimulation recovered the expression of FRK and biological functions, metabolic reprogramming and stemness phenotype of H1299 cells. FRK plays an oncogenic role in lung cancer cells via a novel regulation mechanism of enhancing the stemness of H1299 cells by inducing metabolism reprogramming, which finally promotes EMT and metastasis. Our study also indicates that FRK could be used as a potential therapeutic target for drug development.