- 作者列表："Lourenco AR","Ban Y","Crowley MJ","Lee SB","Ramchandani D","Du W","Elemento O","George JT","Jolly MK","Levine H","Sheng J","Wong ST","Altorki NK","Gao D
:Metastases are responsible for the majority of breast cancer-associated deaths. The contribution of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the establishment of metastases is still controversial. To obtain in vivo evidence of EMT in metastasis, we established an EMT lineage tracing (Tri-PyMT) model, in which tumor cells undergoing EMT would irreversibly switch their fluorescent marker from RFP+ to GFP+ due to mesenchymal-specific Cre expression. Surprisingly, we found that lung metastases were predominantly derived from the epithelial compartment of breast tumors. However, concerns were raised on the fidelity and sensitivity of RFP-to-GFP switch of this model in reporting EMT of metastatic tumor cells. Here, we evaluated Tri-PyMT cells at the single-cell level using single-cell RNA-sequencing and found that the Tri-PyMT cells exhibited a spectrum of EMT phenotypes, with EMT-related genes concomitantly expressed with the activation of GFP. The fluorescent color switch in these cells precisely marked an unequivocal change in EMT status, defining the pre-EMT and post-EMT compartments within the tumor. Consistently, the pre-EMT cells played dominant roles in metastasis, while the post-EMT cells were supportive in promoting tumor invasion and angiogenesis. Importantly, the post-EMT (GFP+) cells in the Tri-PyMT model were not permanently committed to the mesenchymal phenotype; they were still capable of reverting to the epithelial phenotype and giving rise to secondary tumors, suggesting their persistent EMT plasticity. Our study addressed major concerns with the Tri-PyMT EMT lineage tracing model, which provides us with a powerful tool to investigate the dynamic EMT process in tumor biology. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings confirm the fidelity and sensitivity of the EMT lineage tracing (Tri-PyMT) model and highlight the differential contributions of pre- and post-EMT tumor cells in breast cancer metastasis.See related commentary by Bunz, p. 153.
: 转移是大多数乳腺癌相关死亡的原因。上皮-间质转化 (EMT) 在转移瘤建立中的贡献仍然存在争议。为了获得EMT在转移中的体内证据，我们建立了EMT谱系示踪 (Tri-PyMT) 模型，其中，由于间充质特异性Cre表达，经历EMT的肿瘤细胞将不可逆地将其荧光标记物从RFP + 切换到GFP +。令人惊讶的是，我们发现肺转移主要来源于乳腺肿瘤的上皮隔室。然而，在报告转移性肿瘤细胞的EMT时，对该模型的RFP-to-GFP开关的保真度和灵敏度提出了担忧。在这里，我们使用单细胞RNA测序在单细胞水平评估了Tri-PyMT细胞，发现Tri-PyMT细胞表现出一系列EMT表型，与EMT相关的基因伴随GFP的激活而表达。这些细胞中的荧光颜色开关精确地标记了EMT状态的明确变化，定义了肿瘤内的EMT前和EMT后隔室。一致地，EMT前细胞在转移中起主导作用，而EMT后细胞支持促进肿瘤侵袭和血管生成。重要的是，Tri-PyMT模型中的EMT后 (GFP +) 细胞不是永久性地致力于间充质表型; 它们仍然能够恢复上皮表型并产生继发性肿瘤，表明它们的持续EMT可塑性。我们的研究解决了Tri-PyMT EMT谱系追踪模型的主要问题，该模型为我们研究肿瘤生物学中的动态EMT过程提供了一个强大的工具。意义: 这些发现证实了EMT谱系追踪 (Tri-PyMT) 模型的保真度和灵敏度，并突出了EMT前和EMT后肿瘤细胞在乳腺癌转移中的差异贡献。见Bunz的相关评论 153。
METHODS::Pulmonary artery sling is a rare congenital anomaly of the origin and course of the left pulmonary artery. Patients with this condition typically present with respiratory failure in young infancy, and asymptomatic cases are uncommon. We describe the case of an adult patient with a lung adenocarcinoma of the right upper lobe, extending into the hilum and superior mediastinum, and with a previously unknown pulmonary artery sling anomaly. The local invasiveness of the tumor and the peculiar vascular anatomy contributed to a unique surgical scenario, wherein multiple reconstructive procedures were required.
METHODS::Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have higher risk of developing lung cancer, for example, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and show poor prognosis, while the molecular basis has not been fully investigated. Here we conducted DNA methylome analysis of lung SCC using 20 SCC samples with/without IPF, and noncancerous lung tissue samples from smokers/nonsmokers, using Infinium HumanMethylation 450K array. SCC was clustered into low- and high-methylation epigenotypes by hierarchical clustering analysis. Genes hypermethylated in SCC significantly included genes targeted by polycomb repressive complex in embryonic stem cells, and genes associated with Gene Ontology terms, for example, "transcription" and "cell adhesion," while genes hypermethylated specifically in high-methylation subgroup significantly included genes associated with "negative regulation of growth." Low-methylation subgroup significantly correlated with IPF (78%, vs. 17% in high-methylation subgroup, p = 0.04), and the correlation was validated by additional Infinium analysis of SCC samples (n = 44 in total), and data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 390). The correlation between low-methylation subgroup and IPF was further validated by quantitative methylation analysis of marker genes commonly hypermethylated in SCC (HOXA2, HOXA9 and PCDHGB6), and markers specifically hypermethylated in high-methylation subgroup (DLEC1, CFTR, MT1M, CRIP3 and ALDH7A1) in 77 SCC cases using pyrosequencing (p = 0.003). Furthermore, low-methylation epigenotype significantly correlated with poorer prognosis among all SCC patients, or among patients without IPF. Multivariate analysis showed that low-methylation epigenotype is an independent predictor of poor prognosis. These may suggest that lung SCC could be stratified into molecular subtypes with distinct prognosis, and low-methylation lung SCC that significantly correlates with IPF shows unfavorable outcome.
METHODS::The role of Fyn-related kinase (FRK) in malignant tumors remains controversial. Our study investigated the function of FRK in lung cancer. Immunohistochemistry staining and generating a knockout of FRK by CRISPR/Cas9 in H1299 (FRK-KO-H1299) cells were strategies used to explore the role of FRK. Immunohistochemistry staining indicated that FRK expression was elevated in 223 lung cancer tissues compared to 26 distant normal lung tissues. FRK contributed to poor survival status in lung cancer patients and acted as a predictor for poor prognosis of lung cancer. Knockout of FRK by CRISPR/Cas9 markedly inhibited proliferation, invasion, colony formation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in the lung cancer cell line H1299. Further exploration indicated that FRK-KO damaged the stemness phenotype of H1299 by inhibiting CD44 and CD133 expression. Seahorse detection and a U-13 C flux assay revealed that FRK-KO induced metabolism reprogramming by inhibiting the Warburg effect and changing the energy type in H1299 cells. Epidermal growth factor stimulation recovered the expression of FRK and biological functions, metabolic reprogramming and stemness phenotype of H1299 cells. FRK plays an oncogenic role in lung cancer cells via a novel regulation mechanism of enhancing the stemness of H1299 cells by inducing metabolism reprogramming, which finally promotes EMT and metastasis. Our study also indicates that FRK could be used as a potential therapeutic target for drug development.