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Gender differences in community-acquired pneumonia.


  • 影响因子:1.56
  • DOI:10.23736/S0026-4806.20.06448-4
  • 作者列表:"Barbagelata E","Cillóniz C","Dominedò C","Torres A","Nicolini A","Solidoro P
  • 发表时间:2020-04-01

INTRODUCTION:Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most common type of lower respiratory tract infection and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in adults worldwide. Sex and gender play an active role in the incidence and outcomes of major infectious diseases, including CAP. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION:We searched the following electronic databases from January 2001 to December 2018: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAIL, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central register of Controlled Trials), DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and ACP Journal Club database. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS:Several studies have reported higher male susceptibility to pulmonary infections and higher risk of death due to sepsis. Biological differences (e.g. hormonal cycles and cellular immune-mediated responses) together with cultural, behavioral and socio-economic differences are important determinants of the course and outcome of CAP. However, gender-related bias in the provision of care and use of hospital resources has been reported among women, resulting in delayed hospital admission and consequently necessary care. CONCLUSIONS:CAP is more severe in males than in females, leading to higher mortality in males, especially in older age. To identify gender differences in CAP can guide patient's prognostication and management.


引言: 社区获得性肺炎 (CAP) 是最常见的下呼吸道感染类型,也是全世界成年人发病和死亡的主要原因。性别和性别在重大传染病 (包括CAP) 的发病率和结局中起着积极作用。 证据获取: 我们检索了 2001 年 1 月至 2018 年 12 月的以下电子数据库: MEDLINE,EMBASE,CINHAIL,CENTRAL (Cochrane Central register of Controlled Trials),DARE (有效性综述摘要数据库) 、Cochrane系统综述数据库和ACP期刊俱乐部数据库。 证据综合: 几项研究报告了男性对肺部感染的易感性较高,脓毒症导致的死亡风险较高。生物学差异 (例如激素周期和细胞免疫介导的反应) 以及文化、行为和社会经济差异是CAP过程和结果的重要决定因素。然而,据报告,妇女在提供护理和使用医院资源方面存在与性别有关的偏见,导致入院延迟,从而导致必要的护理。 结论: CAP在男性中比女性更严重,导致男性死亡率较高,尤其是在年龄较大的人群中。确定CAP的性别差异可以指导患者的预后和管理。



来源期刊:Nature immunology
作者列表:["Adrover JM","Aroca-Crevillén A","Crainiciuc G","Ostos F","Rojas-Vega Y","Rubio-Ponce A","Cilloniz C","Bonzón-Kulichenko E","Calvo E","Rico D","Moro MA","Weber C","Lizasoaín I","Torres A","Ruiz-Cabello J","Vázquez J","Hidalgo A"]

METHODS::The antimicrobial functions of neutrophils are facilitated by a defensive armamentarium of proteins stored in granules, and by the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). However, the toxic nature of these structures poses a threat to highly vascularized tissues, such as the lungs. Here, we identified a cell-intrinsic program that modified the neutrophil proteome in the circulation and caused the progressive loss of granule content and reduction of the NET-forming capacity. This program was driven by the receptor CXCR2 and by regulators of circadian cycles. As a consequence, lungs were protected from inflammatory injury at times of day or in mouse mutants in which granule content was low. Changes in the proteome, granule content and NET formation also occurred in human neutrophils, and correlated with the incidence and severity of respiratory distress in pneumonia patients. Our findings unveil a 'disarming' strategy of neutrophils that depletes protein stores to reduce the magnitude of inflammation.

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翻译标题与摘要 下载文献
作者列表:["Yang LC","Suen YJ","Wang YH","Lin TC","Yu HC","Chang YC"]

METHODS::Pneumonia is a common respiratory infectious disease that involves the inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma. Periodontal disease is widespread and correlated with pneumonia. However, the relationship between periodontal treatment and clinical infectious outcomes in patients with pneumonia has remained undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between periodontal treatment and the risk of pneumonia events in the Taiwanese population. A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A total of 49,400 chronic periodontitis patients who received periodontal treatment from 2001 to 2012 were selected. In addition, 49,400 healthy individuals without periodontal diseases were picked randomly from the general population after propensity score matching according to age, gender, monthly income, urbanization, and comorbidities. The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was adopted to assess the hazard ratio (HR) of pneumonia between the periodontal treatment cohort and the comparison cohort. The average ages of the periodontal treatment and comparison groups were 44.25 ± 14.82 years and 44.15 ± 14.5 years, respectively. The follow up durations were 7.66 and 7.41 years for the periodontal treatment and comparison groups, respectively. We found 2504 and 1922 patients with newly diagnosed pneumonia in the comparison cohort and the periodontal treatment cohort, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier plot revealed that the cumulative incidence of pneumonia was significantly lower over the 12 year follow-up period in the periodontal treatment group (using the log-rank test, p < 0.001). In conclusion, this nationwide population-based study indicated that the patients with periodontal treatment exhibited a significantly lower risk of pneumonia than the general population.

翻译标题与摘要 下载文献
作者列表:["Ngocho JS","Horumpende PG","de Jonge MI","Mmbaga BT"]

METHODS:OBJECTIVE:To describe the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children under five years in Tanzania. METHODS:Between January and December 2017, children aged 2-59 months with chest radiography-confirmed CAP were enrolled. The parents were interviewed to collect information on the patients and home-based medication. Clinical information was derived from the patient files. Nasopharyngeal swab and blood samples were collected for isolation of the causative pathogens. Swab samples were analysed by quantitative PCR whereas blood samples were tested using BacT/Alert 3D. RESULTS:Overall, 109 children with CAP were included in this analysis. Provision of care to most children was delayed (median = 4.6 days). A quarter (26.6%) were given unprescribed/leftover antibiotics at home. Only one child had positive bacterial culture. Referrals were associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (p = 0.003) and Haemophilus influenzae (p = 0.004). Of all admitted children, more than a quarter (n = 29) did not need to be hospitalised and inappropriately received injectable instead of oral antibiotics. CONCLUSION:We found high rates of home treatment, particularly with antibiotics. Appropriate health care was delayed for most children because of home treatment. Efforts are needed at the community level to improve awareness of antimicrobial resistance.

翻译标题与摘要 下载文献