Recent progress in understanding 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) associated with human respiratory disease: detection, mechanisms and treatment.
了解 2019-新型冠状病毒 (SARS-CoV-2) 与人类呼吸系统疾病相关的最新进展: 检测、机制和治疗。
- 作者列表："Kang S","Peng W","Zhu Y","Lu S","Zhou M","Lin W","Wu W","Huang S","Jiang L","Luo X","Deng M
:Viral respiratory diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) always pose a severe threat to people. First identified in late December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV; SARS-CoV-2) has affected many provinces in China and multiple countries worldwide. The viral outbreak has aroused panic and a public-health emergency around the world, and the number of infections continues to rise. However, the causes and consequences of the pneumonia remain unknown. To effectively implement epidemic prevention, early identification and diagnosis are critical to disease control. Here we scrutinise a series of available studies by global scientists on the clinical manifestations, detection methods and treatment options for the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and also propose potential strategies for preventing the infection.
: 病毒性呼吸道疾病如严重急性呼吸道症候群 (传染性非典型肺炎) 中东呼吸综合征总是构成严重威胁的人.新型冠状病毒 (2019-nCoV; SARS-CoV-2) 于 2019 年 12 月末首次确定，已影响中国许多省份和全球多个国家。病毒爆发引发了全球的恐慌和公共卫生紧急事件，感染人数持续上升。然而，肺炎的原因和后果仍然未知。有效实施防疫，早期识别和诊断是疾病控制的关键。在这里，我们仔细研究了一系列全球科学家关于SARS-CoV-2 引起的疾病的临床表现，检测方法和治疗方案的研究，命名为冠状病毒疾病 2019 (新型冠状病毒肺炎)，并提出了预防感染的潜在策略。
METHODS::The antimicrobial functions of neutrophils are facilitated by a defensive armamentarium of proteins stored in granules, and by the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). However, the toxic nature of these structures poses a threat to highly vascularized tissues, such as the lungs. Here, we identified a cell-intrinsic program that modified the neutrophil proteome in the circulation and caused the progressive loss of granule content and reduction of the NET-forming capacity. This program was driven by the receptor CXCR2 and by regulators of circadian cycles. As a consequence, lungs were protected from inflammatory injury at times of day or in mouse mutants in which granule content was low. Changes in the proteome, granule content and NET formation also occurred in human neutrophils, and correlated with the incidence and severity of respiratory distress in pneumonia patients. Our findings unveil a 'disarming' strategy of neutrophils that depletes protein stores to reduce the magnitude of inflammation.
METHODS::Pneumonia is a common respiratory infectious disease that involves the inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma. Periodontal disease is widespread and correlated with pneumonia. However, the relationship between periodontal treatment and clinical infectious outcomes in patients with pneumonia has remained undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between periodontal treatment and the risk of pneumonia events in the Taiwanese population. A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A total of 49,400 chronic periodontitis patients who received periodontal treatment from 2001 to 2012 were selected. In addition, 49,400 healthy individuals without periodontal diseases were picked randomly from the general population after propensity score matching according to age, gender, monthly income, urbanization, and comorbidities. The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was adopted to assess the hazard ratio (HR) of pneumonia between the periodontal treatment cohort and the comparison cohort. The average ages of the periodontal treatment and comparison groups were 44.25 ± 14.82 years and 44.15 ± 14.5 years, respectively. The follow up durations were 7.66 and 7.41 years for the periodontal treatment and comparison groups, respectively. We found 2504 and 1922 patients with newly diagnosed pneumonia in the comparison cohort and the periodontal treatment cohort, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier plot revealed that the cumulative incidence of pneumonia was significantly lower over the 12 year follow-up period in the periodontal treatment group (using the log-rank test, p < 0.001). In conclusion, this nationwide population-based study indicated that the patients with periodontal treatment exhibited a significantly lower risk of pneumonia than the general population.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:To describe the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children under five years in Tanzania. METHODS:Between January and December 2017, children aged 2-59 months with chest radiography-confirmed CAP were enrolled. The parents were interviewed to collect information on the patients and home-based medication. Clinical information was derived from the patient files. Nasopharyngeal swab and blood samples were collected for isolation of the causative pathogens. Swab samples were analysed by quantitative PCR whereas blood samples were tested using BacT/Alert 3D. RESULTS:Overall, 109 children with CAP were included in this analysis. Provision of care to most children was delayed (median = 4.6 days). A quarter (26.6%) were given unprescribed/leftover antibiotics at home. Only one child had positive bacterial culture. Referrals were associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (p = 0.003) and Haemophilus influenzae (p = 0.004). Of all admitted children, more than a quarter (n = 29) did not need to be hospitalised and inappropriately received injectable instead of oral antibiotics. CONCLUSION:We found high rates of home treatment, particularly with antibiotics. Appropriate health care was delayed for most children because of home treatment. Efforts are needed at the community level to improve awareness of antimicrobial resistance.