- 作者列表："Ge H","Wang X","Yuan X","Xiao G","Wang C","Deng T","Yuan Q","Xiao X
:In December 2019, pneumonia of unknown cause occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. On 7 January 2020, a novel coronavirus, named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified in the throat swab sample of one patient. The World Health Organization (WHO) announced the epidemic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Currently, COVID-19 has spread widely around the world, affecting more than seventy countries. China, with a huge burden of this disease, has taken strong measures to control the spread and improve the curative rate of COVID-19. In this review, we summarized the epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of COVID-19. A comprehensive understanding will help to control the disease.
: 2019 年 12 月，湖北省武汉市发生不明原因肺炎。2020 年 1 月 7 日，在一名患者的咽拭子样本中鉴定出新型冠状病毒，命名为严重急性呼吸综合征coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)。世卫组织公布由SARS-CoV-2 引起的流行性疾病为冠状病毒病 2019 (新型冠状病毒肺炎)。目前，新型冠状病毒肺炎已在全球广泛传播，影响了 70 多个国家。我国对这一疾病负担巨大，已采取有力措施控制传播，提高治愈率新型冠状病毒肺炎。本文就新型冠状病毒肺炎的流行病学特征、临床特征、诊断、治疗及预后进行综述。一个全面的了解将有助于控制这种疾病。
METHODS::The antimicrobial functions of neutrophils are facilitated by a defensive armamentarium of proteins stored in granules, and by the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). However, the toxic nature of these structures poses a threat to highly vascularized tissues, such as the lungs. Here, we identified a cell-intrinsic program that modified the neutrophil proteome in the circulation and caused the progressive loss of granule content and reduction of the NET-forming capacity. This program was driven by the receptor CXCR2 and by regulators of circadian cycles. As a consequence, lungs were protected from inflammatory injury at times of day or in mouse mutants in which granule content was low. Changes in the proteome, granule content and NET formation also occurred in human neutrophils, and correlated with the incidence and severity of respiratory distress in pneumonia patients. Our findings unveil a 'disarming' strategy of neutrophils that depletes protein stores to reduce the magnitude of inflammation.
METHODS::Pneumonia is a common respiratory infectious disease that involves the inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma. Periodontal disease is widespread and correlated with pneumonia. However, the relationship between periodontal treatment and clinical infectious outcomes in patients with pneumonia has remained undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between periodontal treatment and the risk of pneumonia events in the Taiwanese population. A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A total of 49,400 chronic periodontitis patients who received periodontal treatment from 2001 to 2012 were selected. In addition, 49,400 healthy individuals without periodontal diseases were picked randomly from the general population after propensity score matching according to age, gender, monthly income, urbanization, and comorbidities. The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was adopted to assess the hazard ratio (HR) of pneumonia between the periodontal treatment cohort and the comparison cohort. The average ages of the periodontal treatment and comparison groups were 44.25 ± 14.82 years and 44.15 ± 14.5 years, respectively. The follow up durations were 7.66 and 7.41 years for the periodontal treatment and comparison groups, respectively. We found 2504 and 1922 patients with newly diagnosed pneumonia in the comparison cohort and the periodontal treatment cohort, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier plot revealed that the cumulative incidence of pneumonia was significantly lower over the 12 year follow-up period in the periodontal treatment group (using the log-rank test, p < 0.001). In conclusion, this nationwide population-based study indicated that the patients with periodontal treatment exhibited a significantly lower risk of pneumonia than the general population.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:To describe the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children under five years in Tanzania. METHODS:Between January and December 2017, children aged 2-59 months with chest radiography-confirmed CAP were enrolled. The parents were interviewed to collect information on the patients and home-based medication. Clinical information was derived from the patient files. Nasopharyngeal swab and blood samples were collected for isolation of the causative pathogens. Swab samples were analysed by quantitative PCR whereas blood samples were tested using BacT/Alert 3D. RESULTS:Overall, 109 children with CAP were included in this analysis. Provision of care to most children was delayed (median = 4.6 days). A quarter (26.6%) were given unprescribed/leftover antibiotics at home. Only one child had positive bacterial culture. Referrals were associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (p = 0.003) and Haemophilus influenzae (p = 0.004). Of all admitted children, more than a quarter (n = 29) did not need to be hospitalised and inappropriately received injectable instead of oral antibiotics. CONCLUSION:We found high rates of home treatment, particularly with antibiotics. Appropriate health care was delayed for most children because of home treatment. Efforts are needed at the community level to improve awareness of antimicrobial resistance.