Risk factors for pneumonia in patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: A single-center retrospective study.
- 作者列表："Miao X","Yuan P","Zhao L","Zhang L","Jiang X","Cao H","Shi H","Li J","Yang R
:To identify the risk factors of pneumonia in patients with Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (Anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis.This is a retrospective study.Department of Neurology in West China Hospital of Sichuan University.Patients with a definitive diagnosis of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.Risk factors associated with pneumonia were examined by bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression model.A total of 104 patients were included in this study, of which 41% patients (n = 43) were diagnosed with pneumonia at 7 days (range: 4-40 days) after admission. The occurrence of pneumonia was associated with prolonged hospital stays, a higher rate of poor outcome, and extra healthcare costs. Risk factors associated with pneumonia included Glasgow coma scale score (GCS), abnormal movements and hypokalemia.Pneumonia is a common complication in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. In the present study, we found that disorders of consciousness, abnormal movements, and hypokalemia were independent risk factors for pneumonia in inpatients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Pneumonia prolongs the patients' hospital stay, hospitalization expenditures, and affects the patients' prognosis.
: 确定抗N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸 (抗NMDA) 患者肺炎的危险因素受体脑炎。这是一项回顾性研究。四川大学华西医院神经内科。明确诊断为抗NMDA受体脑炎的患者。采用双变量分析和多变量logistic回归模型分析肺炎相关危险因素。本研究共纳入 104 例患者，其中 41% 例患者 (n = 43 43)入院后 7 天 (范围: 4-40 天) 被诊断为肺炎。肺炎的发生与延长的住院时间、较高的不良结局率和额外的医疗费用有关。与肺炎相关的危险因素包括格拉斯哥昏迷评分 (GCS) 、运动异常和低钾血症。肺炎是抗NMDA受体脑炎的常见并发症。在本研究中，我们发现意识障碍、异常运动和低钾血症是抗NMDA受体脑炎住院患者肺炎的独立危险因素。肺炎会延长患者的住院时间、住院费用，影响患者的预后。
METHODS::The antimicrobial functions of neutrophils are facilitated by a defensive armamentarium of proteins stored in granules, and by the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). However, the toxic nature of these structures poses a threat to highly vascularized tissues, such as the lungs. Here, we identified a cell-intrinsic program that modified the neutrophil proteome in the circulation and caused the progressive loss of granule content and reduction of the NET-forming capacity. This program was driven by the receptor CXCR2 and by regulators of circadian cycles. As a consequence, lungs were protected from inflammatory injury at times of day or in mouse mutants in which granule content was low. Changes in the proteome, granule content and NET formation also occurred in human neutrophils, and correlated with the incidence and severity of respiratory distress in pneumonia patients. Our findings unveil a 'disarming' strategy of neutrophils that depletes protein stores to reduce the magnitude of inflammation.
METHODS::Pneumonia is a common respiratory infectious disease that involves the inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma. Periodontal disease is widespread and correlated with pneumonia. However, the relationship between periodontal treatment and clinical infectious outcomes in patients with pneumonia has remained undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between periodontal treatment and the risk of pneumonia events in the Taiwanese population. A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A total of 49,400 chronic periodontitis patients who received periodontal treatment from 2001 to 2012 were selected. In addition, 49,400 healthy individuals without periodontal diseases were picked randomly from the general population after propensity score matching according to age, gender, monthly income, urbanization, and comorbidities. The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was adopted to assess the hazard ratio (HR) of pneumonia between the periodontal treatment cohort and the comparison cohort. The average ages of the periodontal treatment and comparison groups were 44.25 ± 14.82 years and 44.15 ± 14.5 years, respectively. The follow up durations were 7.66 and 7.41 years for the periodontal treatment and comparison groups, respectively. We found 2504 and 1922 patients with newly diagnosed pneumonia in the comparison cohort and the periodontal treatment cohort, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier plot revealed that the cumulative incidence of pneumonia was significantly lower over the 12 year follow-up period in the periodontal treatment group (using the log-rank test, p < 0.001). In conclusion, this nationwide population-based study indicated that the patients with periodontal treatment exhibited a significantly lower risk of pneumonia than the general population.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:To describe the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children under five years in Tanzania. METHODS:Between January and December 2017, children aged 2-59 months with chest radiography-confirmed CAP were enrolled. The parents were interviewed to collect information on the patients and home-based medication. Clinical information was derived from the patient files. Nasopharyngeal swab and blood samples were collected for isolation of the causative pathogens. Swab samples were analysed by quantitative PCR whereas blood samples were tested using BacT/Alert 3D. RESULTS:Overall, 109 children with CAP were included in this analysis. Provision of care to most children was delayed (median = 4.6 days). A quarter (26.6%) were given unprescribed/leftover antibiotics at home. Only one child had positive bacterial culture. Referrals were associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (p = 0.003) and Haemophilus influenzae (p = 0.004). Of all admitted children, more than a quarter (n = 29) did not need to be hospitalised and inappropriately received injectable instead of oral antibiotics. CONCLUSION:We found high rates of home treatment, particularly with antibiotics. Appropriate health care was delayed for most children because of home treatment. Efforts are needed at the community level to improve awareness of antimicrobial resistance.