糖皮质激素治疗新型冠状病毒肺炎肺炎 2 例并文献复习.
- 作者列表："Dai J","Xiong Y","Li H","Qian Y","Xu Y","Xu Q","Yan X","Tang J
:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, firstly reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, has rapidly spread around the world with high mortality rate among critically ill patients. The use of corticosteroids in COVID-19 remains a major controversy. Available evidences are inconclusive. According to WHO guidance, corticosteroids are not recommended to be used unless for another reason. Chinese Thoracic Society (CTS) proposes an expert consensus statement that suggests taking a prudent attitude of corticosteroid usage. In our clinical practice, we do not use corticosteroids routinely; only low-to-moderate doses of corticosteroids were given to several severely ill patients prudently. In this paper, we will present two confirmed severe COVID-19 cases admitted to isolation wards in Optical Valley Campus of Tongji hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. We will discuss questions related to corticosteroids usages.
: 冠状病毒病 2019 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 中国湖北武汉首次报道的肺炎在全球迅速传播，在危重病人中死亡率很高。新型冠状病毒肺炎皮质类固醇的使用仍然是一个重大争议。现有证据尚无定论。根据WHO指南，不建议使用皮质类固醇，除非出于其他原因。中华胸科学会 (CTS) 提出了一项专家共识声明，建议对皮质类固醇的使用采取谨慎的态度。在我们的临床实践中，我们不常规使用皮质类固醇; 只有低至中等剂量的皮质类固醇被谨慎地给予几名重症患者。本文将介绍华中科技大学同济医学院附属同济医院光谷院区隔离病房收治的 2 例确诊重症新型冠状病毒肺炎例。我们将讨论与皮质类固醇使用相关的问题。
METHODS::The antimicrobial functions of neutrophils are facilitated by a defensive armamentarium of proteins stored in granules, and by the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). However, the toxic nature of these structures poses a threat to highly vascularized tissues, such as the lungs. Here, we identified a cell-intrinsic program that modified the neutrophil proteome in the circulation and caused the progressive loss of granule content and reduction of the NET-forming capacity. This program was driven by the receptor CXCR2 and by regulators of circadian cycles. As a consequence, lungs were protected from inflammatory injury at times of day or in mouse mutants in which granule content was low. Changes in the proteome, granule content and NET formation also occurred in human neutrophils, and correlated with the incidence and severity of respiratory distress in pneumonia patients. Our findings unveil a 'disarming' strategy of neutrophils that depletes protein stores to reduce the magnitude of inflammation.
METHODS::Pneumonia is a common respiratory infectious disease that involves the inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma. Periodontal disease is widespread and correlated with pneumonia. However, the relationship between periodontal treatment and clinical infectious outcomes in patients with pneumonia has remained undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between periodontal treatment and the risk of pneumonia events in the Taiwanese population. A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A total of 49,400 chronic periodontitis patients who received periodontal treatment from 2001 to 2012 were selected. In addition, 49,400 healthy individuals without periodontal diseases were picked randomly from the general population after propensity score matching according to age, gender, monthly income, urbanization, and comorbidities. The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was adopted to assess the hazard ratio (HR) of pneumonia between the periodontal treatment cohort and the comparison cohort. The average ages of the periodontal treatment and comparison groups were 44.25 ± 14.82 years and 44.15 ± 14.5 years, respectively. The follow up durations were 7.66 and 7.41 years for the periodontal treatment and comparison groups, respectively. We found 2504 and 1922 patients with newly diagnosed pneumonia in the comparison cohort and the periodontal treatment cohort, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier plot revealed that the cumulative incidence of pneumonia was significantly lower over the 12 year follow-up period in the periodontal treatment group (using the log-rank test, p < 0.001). In conclusion, this nationwide population-based study indicated that the patients with periodontal treatment exhibited a significantly lower risk of pneumonia than the general population.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:To describe the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children under five years in Tanzania. METHODS:Between January and December 2017, children aged 2-59 months with chest radiography-confirmed CAP were enrolled. The parents were interviewed to collect information on the patients and home-based medication. Clinical information was derived from the patient files. Nasopharyngeal swab and blood samples were collected for isolation of the causative pathogens. Swab samples were analysed by quantitative PCR whereas blood samples were tested using BacT/Alert 3D. RESULTS:Overall, 109 children with CAP were included in this analysis. Provision of care to most children was delayed (median = 4.6 days). A quarter (26.6%) were given unprescribed/leftover antibiotics at home. Only one child had positive bacterial culture. Referrals were associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (p = 0.003) and Haemophilus influenzae (p = 0.004). Of all admitted children, more than a quarter (n = 29) did not need to be hospitalised and inappropriately received injectable instead of oral antibiotics. CONCLUSION:We found high rates of home treatment, particularly with antibiotics. Appropriate health care was delayed for most children because of home treatment. Efforts are needed at the community level to improve awareness of antimicrobial resistance.