- 作者列表："Chakraborty S","Basu A
:Infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which belongs to the Coronaviridae family and is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus originating from Wuhan, China, was declared a global public health emergency on 11 March 2020. SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans is characterized by symptoms such as fever and dyspnea accompanied by infrequent incidence of lymphopenia, gastrointestinal complications such as elevated hepatic aminotransferases, and diarrhea. Originating in bats, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been transmitted to humans likely via an intermediate host that is yet to be discovered. Owing to the absence of any vaccines or definite anti-viral drugs alongside the greater mobility of people across the globe, international and national efforts in containing and treating SARS-CoV-2 infection are experiencing severe difficulties. In this review, we have provided a picture of SARS-CoV-2 epidemiological characteristics, the clinical symptoms experienced by patients of varying age groups, the molecular virology of SARS-CoV-2, and the treatment regimens currently employed for fighting SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as their outcomes.
: 由新型冠状病毒 (SARS-CoV-2) 引起的感染，该病毒属于冠状病毒科，是一种起源于中国武汉的正义单链RNA病毒，于 2020 年 3 月 11 日被宣布为全球突发公共卫生事件。SARS-CoV-2 人类感染的特征在于诸如发热和呼吸困难的症状，伴随着罕见的淋巴细胞减少症的发生率，胃肠道并发症例如肝转氨酶升高和腹泻。SARS-CoV-2 病毒起源于蝙蝠，可能通过尚未被发现的中间宿主传播给人类。由于缺乏任何疫苗或明确的抗病毒药物以及全球人口的更大流动性，国际和国家在遏制和治疗SARS-CoV-2 感染方面的努力正面临严重困难。在这篇综述中，我们提供了SARS-CoV-2 流行病学特征，不同年龄组患者经历的临床症状，SARS-CoV-2 的分子病毒学，以及目前用于对抗SARS-CoV-2 感染的治疗方案及其结果。
METHODS::The antimicrobial functions of neutrophils are facilitated by a defensive armamentarium of proteins stored in granules, and by the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). However, the toxic nature of these structures poses a threat to highly vascularized tissues, such as the lungs. Here, we identified a cell-intrinsic program that modified the neutrophil proteome in the circulation and caused the progressive loss of granule content and reduction of the NET-forming capacity. This program was driven by the receptor CXCR2 and by regulators of circadian cycles. As a consequence, lungs were protected from inflammatory injury at times of day or in mouse mutants in which granule content was low. Changes in the proteome, granule content and NET formation also occurred in human neutrophils, and correlated with the incidence and severity of respiratory distress in pneumonia patients. Our findings unveil a 'disarming' strategy of neutrophils that depletes protein stores to reduce the magnitude of inflammation.
METHODS::Pneumonia is a common respiratory infectious disease that involves the inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma. Periodontal disease is widespread and correlated with pneumonia. However, the relationship between periodontal treatment and clinical infectious outcomes in patients with pneumonia has remained undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between periodontal treatment and the risk of pneumonia events in the Taiwanese population. A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A total of 49,400 chronic periodontitis patients who received periodontal treatment from 2001 to 2012 were selected. In addition, 49,400 healthy individuals without periodontal diseases were picked randomly from the general population after propensity score matching according to age, gender, monthly income, urbanization, and comorbidities. The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was adopted to assess the hazard ratio (HR) of pneumonia between the periodontal treatment cohort and the comparison cohort. The average ages of the periodontal treatment and comparison groups were 44.25 ± 14.82 years and 44.15 ± 14.5 years, respectively. The follow up durations were 7.66 and 7.41 years for the periodontal treatment and comparison groups, respectively. We found 2504 and 1922 patients with newly diagnosed pneumonia in the comparison cohort and the periodontal treatment cohort, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier plot revealed that the cumulative incidence of pneumonia was significantly lower over the 12 year follow-up period in the periodontal treatment group (using the log-rank test, p < 0.001). In conclusion, this nationwide population-based study indicated that the patients with periodontal treatment exhibited a significantly lower risk of pneumonia than the general population.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:To describe the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children under five years in Tanzania. METHODS:Between January and December 2017, children aged 2-59 months with chest radiography-confirmed CAP were enrolled. The parents were interviewed to collect information on the patients and home-based medication. Clinical information was derived from the patient files. Nasopharyngeal swab and blood samples were collected for isolation of the causative pathogens. Swab samples were analysed by quantitative PCR whereas blood samples were tested using BacT/Alert 3D. RESULTS:Overall, 109 children with CAP were included in this analysis. Provision of care to most children was delayed (median = 4.6 days). A quarter (26.6%) were given unprescribed/leftover antibiotics at home. Only one child had positive bacterial culture. Referrals were associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (p = 0.003) and Haemophilus influenzae (p = 0.004). Of all admitted children, more than a quarter (n = 29) did not need to be hospitalised and inappropriately received injectable instead of oral antibiotics. CONCLUSION:We found high rates of home treatment, particularly with antibiotics. Appropriate health care was delayed for most children because of home treatment. Efforts are needed at the community level to improve awareness of antimicrobial resistance.