Effect of Zataria multiflora on serum cytokine levels and pulmonary function tests in sulfur mustard-induced lung disorders: A randomized double-blind clinical trial.
- 作者列表："Khazdair MR","Ghorani V","Alavinezhad A","Boskabady MH
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) belongs to the Lamiaceae family and has several traditional uses owing to its antiseptic, aesthetic, antispasmodic, analgesic, and antidiarrheal properties. AIM OF THE STUDY:We aimed to investigate the effect of Z. multiflora on serum cytokine levels and pulmonary function tests (PFT) in patients exposed to sulfur mustard (SM) for a long term (27-30 years). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Thirty-five patients were randomly assigned to the placebo group (P) and two experimental groups treated with Z. multiflora extracts, i.e., 5 and 10 mg/kg/day (Z5 and Z10). Serum levels of cytokines including IL (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10) and IFN-γ as well as PFT indices such as maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) and maximum expiratory flow at 25, 50, and 75% of vital capacity (VC) (MEF25, 50, and 75) were assessed at the beginning (phase 0) and at the end of 4 and 8 weeks (phases I and II, respectively) after starting the treatment. RESULTS:Serum levels of IL-2, IL-6, and IL-8 were significantly decreased, while serum levels of IL-10 and IFN-γ were significantly increased in the Z5 and Z10 treatment groups in phases I and II as compared to those in phase 0 (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). MMEF and MEF25, 50, and 75 values were significantly increased in the Z5 group in phase II and in the Z10 group in phases I and II compared to those in phase 0 (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). The percent change in serum cytokine levels and the change in MEF25, 50, and 75 during the two-month treatment period were significantly higher in the treatment groups than in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS:Two months of treatment with Z. multiflora reduced inflammation, while it enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokines and improved PFT indices in SM-exposed patients.
民族药理学相关性: Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) 属于Lamiaceae家族，由于其杀菌、美容、解痉、镇痛和止泻特性，具有几种传统用途。 研究目的: 我们旨在研究Z的影响。长期 (27-30 年) 暴露于硫芥 (SM) 的患者血清细胞因子水平和肺功能测试 (PFT) 的多菌群。 材料和方法: 35 名患者被随机分配到安慰剂组 (P) 和两个用Z. multiflora提取物治疗的实验组，即，5 和 10 μ mg/kg/天 (Z5 和Z10)。血清细胞因子水平，包括IL (2 、 4 、 6 、 8 和 10) 和IFN-γ 以及PFT指数，如最大呼气中期流量 (MMEF) 和 25 、 50 和 75% 肺活量 (VC) (MEF25 、 50 和 75) 时的最大呼气流量在开始治疗后的开始 (0 期) 和 4 周和 8 周结束时 (分别为I期和II期) 进行评估。 结果: IL-2 、IL-6 、IL-8 的血清而IL-10 和IFN-γ 的血清水平在I期和II期的Z5 和Z10 治疗组与 0 期相比显著升高 (p <0.05 至p < 0.001)。MMEF和MEF25，50，与 0 期相比，II期Z5 组和I期和II期Z10 组的 75 值显著增加 (p <0.05 至p <0.001)。在两个月的治疗期间，治疗组的血清细胞因子水平的百分比变化和MEF25 、 50 和 75 的变化显著高于安慰剂组。 结论: 用Z. multiflora治疗两个月减少了炎症，同时增强了SM暴露患者的抗炎细胞因子并改善了PFT指数。
METHODS::The antimicrobial functions of neutrophils are facilitated by a defensive armamentarium of proteins stored in granules, and by the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). However, the toxic nature of these structures poses a threat to highly vascularized tissues, such as the lungs. Here, we identified a cell-intrinsic program that modified the neutrophil proteome in the circulation and caused the progressive loss of granule content and reduction of the NET-forming capacity. This program was driven by the receptor CXCR2 and by regulators of circadian cycles. As a consequence, lungs were protected from inflammatory injury at times of day or in mouse mutants in which granule content was low. Changes in the proteome, granule content and NET formation also occurred in human neutrophils, and correlated with the incidence and severity of respiratory distress in pneumonia patients. Our findings unveil a 'disarming' strategy of neutrophils that depletes protein stores to reduce the magnitude of inflammation.
METHODS::Pneumonia is a common respiratory infectious disease that involves the inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma. Periodontal disease is widespread and correlated with pneumonia. However, the relationship between periodontal treatment and clinical infectious outcomes in patients with pneumonia has remained undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between periodontal treatment and the risk of pneumonia events in the Taiwanese population. A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A total of 49,400 chronic periodontitis patients who received periodontal treatment from 2001 to 2012 were selected. In addition, 49,400 healthy individuals without periodontal diseases were picked randomly from the general population after propensity score matching according to age, gender, monthly income, urbanization, and comorbidities. The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was adopted to assess the hazard ratio (HR) of pneumonia between the periodontal treatment cohort and the comparison cohort. The average ages of the periodontal treatment and comparison groups were 44.25 ± 14.82 years and 44.15 ± 14.5 years, respectively. The follow up durations were 7.66 and 7.41 years for the periodontal treatment and comparison groups, respectively. We found 2504 and 1922 patients with newly diagnosed pneumonia in the comparison cohort and the periodontal treatment cohort, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier plot revealed that the cumulative incidence of pneumonia was significantly lower over the 12 year follow-up period in the periodontal treatment group (using the log-rank test, p < 0.001). In conclusion, this nationwide population-based study indicated that the patients with periodontal treatment exhibited a significantly lower risk of pneumonia than the general population.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:To describe the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children under five years in Tanzania. METHODS:Between January and December 2017, children aged 2-59 months with chest radiography-confirmed CAP were enrolled. The parents were interviewed to collect information on the patients and home-based medication. Clinical information was derived from the patient files. Nasopharyngeal swab and blood samples were collected for isolation of the causative pathogens. Swab samples were analysed by quantitative PCR whereas blood samples were tested using BacT/Alert 3D. RESULTS:Overall, 109 children with CAP were included in this analysis. Provision of care to most children was delayed (median = 4.6 days). A quarter (26.6%) were given unprescribed/leftover antibiotics at home. Only one child had positive bacterial culture. Referrals were associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (p = 0.003) and Haemophilus influenzae (p = 0.004). Of all admitted children, more than a quarter (n = 29) did not need to be hospitalised and inappropriately received injectable instead of oral antibiotics. CONCLUSION:We found high rates of home treatment, particularly with antibiotics. Appropriate health care was delayed for most children because of home treatment. Efforts are needed at the community level to improve awareness of antimicrobial resistance.