- 作者列表："Tatara AM
:In light of the current novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, as well as other viral outbreaks in the 21st century, there is a dire need for new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to combat infectious diseases worldwide. As a convergence science, tissue engineering has traditionally focused on the application of engineering principles to biological systems, collaboration across disciplines, and rapid translation of technologies from the benchtop to the bedside. Given these strengths, tissue engineers are particularly well suited to apply their skill set to the current crisis and viral outbreaks in general. This work introduces the basics of virology and epidemiology for tissue engineers, and highlights important developments in the field of tissue engineering relevant to the current pandemic, including in vitro model systems, vaccine technology, and small-molecule drug delivery. COVID-19 serves as a call to arms for scientists across all disciplines, and tissue engineers are well trained to be leaders and contributors in this time of need. Impact statement Given the steep mortality caused by the recent novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, there is clear need for advances in diagnostics and therapeutics for viral outbreaks. Tissue engineering has the potential for critical impact on clinical outcomes in viral outbreaks. Tissue engineers, if mobilized, could play key roles as leaders in the outbreak, given their ability to apply engineering principles to biological processes, experience in collaborative environments, and penchant for technological translation from benchtop to bedside. In this work, three areas pioneered by tissue engineers that could be applied to the current COVID-19 crisis and future viral outbreaks are highlighted.
: 鉴于目前的新型冠状病毒 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 大流行以及 21 世纪的其他病毒爆发，迫切需要新的诊断和治疗策略来对抗全球传染病。作为一门会聚科学，组织工程传统上侧重于工程原理在生物系统中的应用、跨学科合作以及技术从台式到床边的快速转化。鉴于这些优势，组织工程师特别适合将他们的技能用于当前的危机和病毒爆发。这项工作介绍了组织工程师病毒学流行病学学的基础知识，并强调了与当前大流行相关的组织工程领域的重要发展，包括体外模型系统，疫苗技术，和小分子药物输送。新型冠状病毒肺炎是对所有学科科学家的号召，组织工程师训练有素，能够在这个需要的时候成为领导者和贡献者。影响声明鉴于最近新型冠状病毒 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 大流行造成的死亡率很高，显然需要在病毒爆发的诊断和治疗方面取得进展。组织工程有可能对病毒爆发的临床结果产生关键影响。组织工程师如果动员起来，可以在疫情中发挥关键作用，因为他们能够将工程原理应用于生物过程，在协作环境中的经验，喜欢从台式到床边的技术翻译。在这项工作中，组织工程师开创的三个领域可以应用于当前的新型冠状病毒肺炎危机和未来的病毒爆发。
METHODS::The antimicrobial functions of neutrophils are facilitated by a defensive armamentarium of proteins stored in granules, and by the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). However, the toxic nature of these structures poses a threat to highly vascularized tissues, such as the lungs. Here, we identified a cell-intrinsic program that modified the neutrophil proteome in the circulation and caused the progressive loss of granule content and reduction of the NET-forming capacity. This program was driven by the receptor CXCR2 and by regulators of circadian cycles. As a consequence, lungs were protected from inflammatory injury at times of day or in mouse mutants in which granule content was low. Changes in the proteome, granule content and NET formation also occurred in human neutrophils, and correlated with the incidence and severity of respiratory distress in pneumonia patients. Our findings unveil a 'disarming' strategy of neutrophils that depletes protein stores to reduce the magnitude of inflammation.
METHODS::Pneumonia is a common respiratory infectious disease that involves the inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma. Periodontal disease is widespread and correlated with pneumonia. However, the relationship between periodontal treatment and clinical infectious outcomes in patients with pneumonia has remained undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between periodontal treatment and the risk of pneumonia events in the Taiwanese population. A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A total of 49,400 chronic periodontitis patients who received periodontal treatment from 2001 to 2012 were selected. In addition, 49,400 healthy individuals without periodontal diseases were picked randomly from the general population after propensity score matching according to age, gender, monthly income, urbanization, and comorbidities. The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was adopted to assess the hazard ratio (HR) of pneumonia between the periodontal treatment cohort and the comparison cohort. The average ages of the periodontal treatment and comparison groups were 44.25 ± 14.82 years and 44.15 ± 14.5 years, respectively. The follow up durations were 7.66 and 7.41 years for the periodontal treatment and comparison groups, respectively. We found 2504 and 1922 patients with newly diagnosed pneumonia in the comparison cohort and the periodontal treatment cohort, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier plot revealed that the cumulative incidence of pneumonia was significantly lower over the 12 year follow-up period in the periodontal treatment group (using the log-rank test, p < 0.001). In conclusion, this nationwide population-based study indicated that the patients with periodontal treatment exhibited a significantly lower risk of pneumonia than the general population.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:To describe the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children under five years in Tanzania. METHODS:Between January and December 2017, children aged 2-59 months with chest radiography-confirmed CAP were enrolled. The parents were interviewed to collect information on the patients and home-based medication. Clinical information was derived from the patient files. Nasopharyngeal swab and blood samples were collected for isolation of the causative pathogens. Swab samples were analysed by quantitative PCR whereas blood samples were tested using BacT/Alert 3D. RESULTS:Overall, 109 children with CAP were included in this analysis. Provision of care to most children was delayed (median = 4.6 days). A quarter (26.6%) were given unprescribed/leftover antibiotics at home. Only one child had positive bacterial culture. Referrals were associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (p = 0.003) and Haemophilus influenzae (p = 0.004). Of all admitted children, more than a quarter (n = 29) did not need to be hospitalised and inappropriately received injectable instead of oral antibiotics. CONCLUSION:We found high rates of home treatment, particularly with antibiotics. Appropriate health care was delayed for most children because of home treatment. Efforts are needed at the community level to improve awareness of antimicrobial resistance.