'The feeling of not being entitled to something': fertility, pregnancy, and sexuality among women with systemic lupus erythematosus in South Africa.
- 作者列表："Phuti A","Hodkinson B","Tikly M","Schneider M
:Objective: Fertility, pregnancy, and the postpartum period can pose many challenges for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored the perceptions and experiences of South African women relating to fertility and pregnancy.Method: In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 consenting women with SLE. We explored their perceptions and experiences on conception, pregnancy, and sexuality. Data were analysed using Nvivo software.Results: Participants had a mean age of 30.9 years (range 22-45 years) and mean disease duration of 4.5 years (range 1-5 years). The majority were black Africans, and the remainder were of mixed racial ancestry. Unemployment, low educational level, and singlehood status were the most predominant sociodemographic features. Most participants had been pregnant and a few reported being sexually inactive. Participants described many negative pregnancy outcomes including lupus flares, miscarriages, premature deliveries, prolonged hospitalization, and unexpected caesarean sections. Conflicting medical advice on conception, together with conflicting personal, cultural, and societal pressures to procreate, resulted in emotional turmoil and pessimism. Participants frequently described intimacy problems, loss of libido, and infidelity by partners leading to sexually transmitted infections. Aesthetic and physical concerns were perceived as the main causes of infidelity. Most participants felt confined to these relationships as they were financially dependent on their partners, which added to their stress.Conclusion: A combination of patient-centred care focusing on safe, effective contraception and medication targeting remission state, constant counselling, consistent information, and a pregnancy managed jointly by an obstetrics and rheumatology team could achieve optimum results.
目的: 在撒哈拉以南非洲地区，生育、妊娠和产后对系统性红斑狼疮 (SLE) 患者提出了许多挑战。我们探讨了南非妇女对生育和怀孕的看法和经验。方法: 对25名同意的系统性红斑狼疮妇女进行了深入访谈。我们探讨了他们对受孕，怀孕和性行为的看法和经验。结果: 参与者的平均年龄为30.9岁 (范围为22-45岁)，平均病程为4.5年 (范围为1-5年)。大多数是非洲黑人，其余的是混合种族血统。失业、低教育水平和单身状况是最主要的社会人口学特征。大多数参与者已经怀孕，少数参与者报告说没有性行为。参与者描述了许多负面妊娠结果，包括狼疮发作、流产、早产、住院时间延长和意外剖腹产。关于受孕的相互矛盾的医学建议，以及相互矛盾的个人、文化和社会生育压力，导致了情绪混乱和悲观。参与者经常描述亲密问题，性欲丧失以及伴侣的不忠导致性传播感染。审美和身体问题被认为是不忠的主要原因。大多数参与者感到局限于这些关系，因为他们在经济上依赖于他们的伴侣，这增加了他们的压力。结论: 以患者为中心的护理，以安全、有效的避孕和药物治疗为目标的缓解状态，持续的咨询，一致的信息，以及由产科和风湿病学团队共同管理的妊娠相结合，可以达到最佳效果。
METHODS::Objectives: Serial measurements of sonographic fetal abdominal circumference (AC) are useful for monitoring fetal growth during pregnancy and are essential for predicting macrosomia. The study was aiming to compare the AC profiles of infants born to mothers with or without hyperglycemia in Chinese population.Subjects and methods: The "GDM Prevalence Study (GPS)" was a large study conducted in 22 hospitals in three large cities in China, which included 34,085 NGT (normal glucose tolerant) women, 8272 GDM (gestational diabetes mellitus) women and 729 DM (diabetes mellitus) women. A total of 116,740 scans and 103,377 valid AC measurements were performed for the NGT, GDM and DM groups at different gestational age. AC profiles and fetal growth rates at different stages of pregnancy were compared between different groups.Results: The overall AC growth rate (β) was higher in the macrosomia group than in the no macrosomia group in NGT (β =10.250 versus 9.541, p < .001), GDM (β = 10.572 versus 9.705, p < .001) and DM (β = 11.363 versus 9.924, p < .001) pregnancies. Significant differences were observed between NGT-macrosomia, GDM-macrosomia and DM-macrosomia. Significant differences were also noted between NGT-no macrosomia, GDM-no macrosomia and DM-no macrosomia women. Participants in NGT-macrosomia group exhibited larger AC values than NGT-no macrosomia group beginning at 21 gestational weeks, and GDM-macrosomia group exhibited larger AC values than GDM-no macrosomia group beginning at 22 gestational weeks. AC growth rate was higher in NGT-macrosomia and GDM-macrosomia groups than in the corresponding no macrosomia groups between 22 and 30 gestational weeks.Conclusions: The overall AC growth rates are higher in macrosomia group compared to the no macrosomia group in NGT, GDM as well as DM participants. The significant difference of AC growth rates in NGT-macrosomia and GDM-macrosomia indicate the possible differential underlying mechanisms in developing macrosomia with or without hyperglycemia exposure. Our study demonstrate that larger fetal AC measurements around 21-22 weeks are associated with subsequent diagnosis of macrosomia, suggesting that macrosomia management should be initiated much earlier than we thought.
METHODS::Background: Pregnancy outcomes are affected by many different factors. One of the influential factors on pregnancy outcomes is the male partner as an important person to mother's wellbeing.Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of male partner's role including socioeconomic support, emotional support, accompanying pregnant women during prenatal care visits (PNC) and labor, and the level of pregnant women's satisfaction from their partners' support and involvement during pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes.Method: Two hundred first gravid pregnant women with mean age of 23.2 ± 4.3 were studied. Primary outcomes were total maternal and neonatal adverse outcome (TMNAO), total maternal adverse end result (TMAE), and total neonatal adverse outcome (TNAO), regardless of the type of outcomes. Preterm labor and delivery; premature rupture of membrane (PROM) and preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM); preeclampsia and eclampsia; placental abruption; chorioamnionitis; stillbirth; meconium passage; maternal death; postpartum hemorrhage; poor progression labor; abnormal vaginal bleeding in third trimester of pregnancy; low birth weight and neonatal need for CPR or intubation, neonatal anomaly, NICU admission, and neonatal mortality were also analyzed as subgroup outcomes.Results: One hundred twenty-seven (63.5%) participants showed a kind of total maternal and neonatal adverse outcome (TMNAO), 72 (36%) deliveries resulted in a kind of neonatal adverse outcome (TNAO), and 104 (52%) of participants had a kind of maternal adverse end result (TMAE). Iranian fathers showed a significantly higher rate of TMNAO than Afghan fathers did (82 versus 69%, odds ratio: 2.9, 95% CI 1.0-7.8, p: .01). Mother's nationality showed the same result (82 versus 64%, odds ratio: 2.6, 95% CI 0.9-6.8, p: .03). Iranian fathers showed a significantly higher rate of TMAE than Afghan fathers did (79 versus 58%, odds ratio: 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.3, p: .01). Mother's nationality showed the same result (78 versus 60%, odds ratio: 2.4, 95% CI 1.0-5.6, p: 0.02). Neonates with Iranian fathers showed significantly more TNAO than those with Afghan fathers (50 versus 31%, odds ratio: 2.21, 95% CI 0.9-5.5, p: .04). The same trend was observed among Iranian mothers in comparison to Afghan mothers (50 versus 32%, odds ratio: 2.11, 95% CI 0.9-4.6, p: .06). Of mother's age, mother's BMI, father's age, father's BMI, and mother's nationality, only father's BMI contributed significantly to the binary logistic regression model (n = 116, R2: 9%, p: .028). It was found that for each decreased unit in BMI, the risk of TNAO was increased by 16%, p: .03. Moreover, Father's family history of preeclampsia resulted in a higher prevalence of total neonatal adverse outcome (TNAO) in comparison with lack of such family history (87 versus 43%, odds ratio: 8.9, 95% CI 1.1-74.5, p: .02). Besides, mothers' participation in prenatal care (PNC) visits, assessed by caregivers, was significantly more satisfactory in neonates without any adverse outcome than those with neonatal adverse outcomes (median (IQR) = 2 (1-2) versus 2 (2-3), p: .04). PROM, pre-eclampsia, NICU admission, neonatal intubation, low Apgar score minute 0, and low Apgar score minute 5 were significantly more prevalent in participants revealing positive father's family history of pre-eclampsia. Regarding psychosocial exposures, placental abruption was more prevalent in mothers with exposure to verbal aggression versus non-exposed ones (9 versus 2%, odds ratio: 4.0, 95% CI 0.9-24.6, p: .04). Moreover, a weak positive association between neonatal gestational age at birth and quality of mother's participation in PNC visits (r: +0.3, p: .01) as well as mother's satisfaction from father's commitment to PNC visits was found (r: +0.1, p: .03).Conclusion: Male partners may play a key role in pregnant women and fetus's heath.
METHODS::Objective: To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes by forceps vaginal delivery versus cesarean delivery during the second stage of labor.Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a large tertiary maternity center in Shanghai, China through 2007-2016. A total of 7046 women carrying a singleton term nonanomalous fetus with vertex presentation who underwent forceps vaginal delivery, or cesarean delivery from a low station in the second stage of labor were included.Results: Of the 7046 women, 6265 underwent forceps and 781 underwent second stage cesarean delivery. Forceps were associated with lower frequency of maternal infection (2.2 versus 4.7%), but higher incidence of mild postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) (4.3 versus 0.6%). When the procedures were performed for fetal indication, forceps were associated with lower frequency of the composite of perinatal mortality and/or hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) (0.5 versus 1.9%; adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08-0.75), and also shorter decision to delivery interval (12.3 ± 3.5 versus 19.1 ± 5.0 min). The neonatal infection rate was higher in the forceps group (3.9 versus 2.0%). There were no differences in other neonatal outcomes including birth trauma.Conclusions: In women who had a need for intervention during the second stage with a station of +2 or below, forceps were associated with a lower frequency of maternal infection but a higher rate of PPH. Deliveries performed for nonreassuring status were accomplished faster by forceps and were associated with a lower frequency of the composite of perinatal mortality and HIE.