Cytoreductive surgery for advanced stage ovarian cancer in the second trimester of pregnancy-a case report and literature review.
- 作者列表："Bacalbaşa N","Bălescu I","Vîlcu M","Dima S","Iliescu L","Brezean I
RATIONALE:Advanced stage ovarian cancer is rarely encountered in pregnant women, due to the high number of ultrasound imagistic studies performed during this period. The clinical course of patients diagnosed with advanced stage ovarian cancer is similar in pregnant and nonpregnant women. PATIENT CONCERNS:We present the case of a 27-year-old woman initially submitted to emergency surgery for ovarian cyst torsion in the ninth week of gestation, at that moment ovarian cystectomy being performed. DIAGNOSES:The histopathological studies demonstrated the presence of a moderately differentiated epithelial ovarian cancer. INTERVENTIONS:Although the interdisciplinary team decided for staging surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy beginning from the second trimester of pregnancy, both the patient and her family refused this strategy and opined for total hysterectomy en bloc with bilateral adnexectomy. Surprisingly, intraoperatively both ovaries had a tumoral aspect, whereas peritoneal carcinomatosis nodules were found in the Douglas pouch. Therefore, the neoplastic process was staged as a IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer, a total hysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy, Douglas pouch peritonectomy, omentectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection being performed. OUTCOMES:The patient was discharged in the sixth postoperative day and was confined to the oncology service in order to be submitted to the standard taxanes and platinum based chemotherapy. LESSONS:Although ovarian cancer has been rarely reported during pregnancy, this diagnostic should be taken in consideration whenever persistent adnexal masses are encountered.
理由: 晚期卵巢癌很少在孕妇中遇到，因为在此期间进行了大量的超声影像学研究。诊断为晚期卵巢癌的患者的临床过程在妊娠和非妊娠妇女中是相似的。 患者关注的问题: 我们介绍了一个27岁的女性在妊娠第九周因卵巢囊肿扭转最初接受紧急手术的病例，当时正在进行卵巢囊肿切除术。 诊断: 组织病理学研究表明存在中度分化的上皮性卵巢癌。 干预措施: 尽管跨学科团队决定从妊娠中期开始进行分期手术，然后进行铂类化疗，但患者及其家人都拒绝这种策略，并认为全子宫切除术联合双侧附件切除术。令人惊讶的是，术中双侧卵巢都有肿瘤，而在道格拉斯袋中发现腹膜癌结节。因此，肿瘤过程分为IIIC上皮性卵巢癌、全子宫切除术加双侧附件切除术、Douglas袋切除术、大网膜切除术、盆腔和主动脉旁淋巴结清扫术。 结果: 患者在术后第6天出院，并局限于肿瘤学服务，以便接受标准紫杉烷类和铂类化疗。 教训: 虽然妊娠期间很少报告卵巢癌，但每当遇到持续性附件包块时，应考虑这一诊断。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Posterior repairs and perineorrhaphies are often performed in prolapse surgery to reduce the size of the genital hiatus. The benefit of an adjuvant posterior repair at the time of sacrospinous ligament fixation or uterosacral ligament suspension is unknown. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to determine whether an adjuvant posterior repair at transvaginal apical suspension is associated with improved surgical success. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This secondary analysis of Operations and Pelvic Muscle Training in the Management of Apical Support Loss (OPTIMAL) trial compared 24-month outcomes in 190 participants who had a posterior repair (posterior repair group) and 184 who did not (no posterior repair group) at the time of sacrospinous ligament fixation or uterosacral ligament suspension. Concomitant posterior repair was performed at the surgeon's discretion. Primary composite outcome of "surgical success" was defined as no prolapse beyond the hymen, point C ≤ -2/3 total vaginal length, no bothersome bulge symptoms, and no retreatment at 24 months. The individual components were secondary outcomes. Propensity score methods were used to build models that balanced posterior repair group and the no posterior repair group for ethnographic factors and preoperative Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification values. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated to predict surgical success based on the performance of a posterior repair. Groups were also compared with unadjusted χ2 analyses. An unadjusted probability curve was created for surgical success as predicted by preoperative genital hiatus. RESULTS:Women in the posterior repair group were less likely to be Hispanic or Latina, and were more likely to have had a prior hysterectomy and to be on estrogen therapy. The groups did not differ with respect to preoperative Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification stage; however, subjects in the posterior repair group had significantly greater preoperative posterior wall prolapse. There were no group differences in surgical success using propensity score methods (66.7% posterior repair vs 62.0% no posterior repair; adjusted odds ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-2.07; P = 0.83) or unadjusted test (66.2% posterior repair vs 61.7% no posterior repair; P = 0.47). Individual outcome measures of prolapse recurrence (bothersome bulge symptoms, prolapse beyond the hymen, or retreatment for prolapse) also did not differ by group. Similarly, there were no differences between groups in anatomic outcomes of any individual compartment (anterior, apical, or posterior) at 24 months. There was high variation in performance of posterior repair by surgeon (interquartile range, 15-79%). The unadjusted probability of overall success at 24 months, regardless of posterior repair, decreased with increasing genital hiatus, such that a genital hiatus of 4.5 cm was associated with 65.8% success (95% confidence interval, 60.1-71.1%). CONCLUSION:Concomitant posterior repair at sacrospinous ligament fixation or uterosacral ligament suspension was not associated with surgical success after adjusting for baseline covariates using propensity scores or unadjusted comparison. Posterior repair may not compensate for the pathophysiology that leads to enlarged preoperative genital hiatus, which remains prognostic of prolapse recurrence.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The incidence of placenta accreta spectrum is rising. Management is most commonly with cesarean hysterectomy. These deliveries often are complicated by massive hemorrhage, urinary tract injury, and admission to the intensive care unit. Up to 60% of patients require transfusion of ≥4 units of packed red blood cells. There is also a significant risk of death of up to 7%. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to assess the outcomes of patients with antenatal diagnosis of placenta percreta that was managed with delayed hysterectomy as compared with those patients who underwent immediate cesarean hysterectomy. STUDY DESIGN:We performed a retrospective study of all patients with an antepartum diagnosis of placenta percreta at our large academic institution from January 1, 2012, to May 30, 2018. Patients were treated according to standard clinical practice that included scheduled cesarean delivery at 34-35 weeks gestation and intraoperative multidisciplinary decision-making regarding immediate vs delayed hysterectomy. In cases of delayed hysterectomy, the hysterotomy for cesarean birth used a fetal surgery technique to minimize blood loss, with a plan for hysterectomy 4-6 weeks after delivery. We collected data regarding demographics, maternal comorbidities, time to interval hysterectomy, blood loss, need for transfusion, occurrence of urinary tract injury and other maternal complications, and maternal and fetal mortality rates. Descriptive statistics were performed, and Wilcoxon rank-sum and chi-square tests were used as appropriate. RESULTS:We identified 49 patients with an antepartum diagnosis of placenta percreta who were treated at Vanderbilt University Medical Center during the specified period. Of these patients, 34 were confirmed to have severe placenta accreta spectrum, defined as increta or percreta at the time of delivery. Delayed hysterectomy was performed in 14 patients: 9 as scheduled and 5 before the scheduled date. Immediate cesarean hysterectomy was completed in 20 patients: 16 because of intraoperative assessment of resectability and 4 because of preoperative or intraoperative bleeding. The median (interquartile range) estimated blood loss at delayed hysterectomy of 750 mL (650-1450 mL) and the sum total for delivery and delayed hysterectomy of 1300 mL (70 -2150 mL) were significantly lower than the estimated blood loss at immediate hysterectomy of 3000 mL (2375-4250 mL; P<.01 and P=.037, respectively). The median (interquartile range) units of packed red blood cells that were transfused at delayed hysterectomy was 0 (0-2 units), which was significantly lower than units transfused at immediate cesarean hysterectomy (4 units [2-8.25 units]; P<.01). Nine of 20 patients (45%) required transfusion of ≥4 units of red blood cells at immediate cesarean hysterectomy, whereas only 2 of 14 patients (14.2%) required transfusion of ≥4 units of red blood cells at the time of delayed hysterectomy (P=.016). There was 1 maternal death in each group, which were incidences of 7% and 5% in the delayed and immediate hysterectomy patients, respectively. CONCLUSION:Delayed hysterectomy may represent a strategy for minimizing the degree of hemorrhage and need for massive blood transfusion in patients with an antenatal diagnosis of placenta percreta by allowing time for uterine blood flow to decrease and for the placenta to regress from surrounding structures.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate if the intraoperative human papillomavirus (IOP-HPV) test has the same prognostic value as the HPV test performed at 6 months after treatment of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) to predict treatment failure. DESIGN:Prospective cohort study. SETTING:Barcelona, Spain. POPULATION:A cohort of 216 women diagnosed with HSIL and treated with loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). METHODS:After LEEP, an HPV test was performed using the Hybrid Capture 2 system. If this was positive, genotyping was performed with the CLART HPV2 technique. The IOP-HPV test was compared with HPV test at 6 months and with surgical margins. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:Treatment failure. RESULTS:Recurrence rate of HSIL was 6%. There was a strong association between a positive IOP-HPV test, a positive 6-month HPV test, positive HPV 16 genotype, positive surgical margins and HSIL recurrence. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the IOP-HPV test were 85.7, 80.8,24.0 and 98.8% and of the HPV test at 6 months were 76.9, 75.8, 17.2 and 98.0%. CONCLUSION:Intraoperative HPV test accurately predicts treatment failure in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3. This new approach may allow early identification of patients with recurrent disease, which will not delay the treatment. Genotyping could be useful in detecting high-risk patients. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT:IOP-HPV test accurately predicts treatment failure in women with CIN 2/3.