Acute glans ischemia after circumcision successfully treated with low-molecular-weight heparin and topical dihydrotestosterone: A case report.
- 作者列表："Zvizdic Z","Anic D","Popovic N","Vranic S
RATIONALE:Circumcision like any other surgical procedure is not devoid of complications. Serious complications are rare and include iatrogenic hypospadias, glans ischemia/necrosis, and glans amputation, all of which require an emergent treatment. PATIENT CONCERNS:We report here a case of 6 months-old-boy with a superficial glans ischemia following circumcision. DIAGNOSIS:Physical examination revealed a severely cyanotic glans with the moderate edema of the dorsal penile skin. Plasma levels of D-dimer were 8.57 mg/L. Urine passage was unremarkable while color Doppler ultrasonography revealed a normal blood flow. INTERVENTIONS:The patient was successfully treated with subcutaneous injection of enoxaparin (low-molecular-weight heparin) and topical 2.5% dihydrotestosterone. OUTCOMES:The appearance of the glans penis on the 5th day was close to normal while the control levels of D-dimer dropped to the reference range. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 6th day. At 6-month follow-up, the appearance of the glans penis was normal. LESSONS:Acute glans penis ischemia following circumcision is a rare complication. Its successful treatment with enoxaparin and topical dihydrotestosterone has not been previously reported in the literature.
理由: 包皮环切术与其他任何外科手术一样，并非没有并发症。严重的并发症是罕见的，包括医源性尿道下裂、龟头缺血/坏死和龟头截肢，所有这些都需要紧急治疗。 患者关注的问题: 我们在这里报告一例6个月大的男孩在包皮环切术后浅表龟头缺血。 诊断: 体格检查发现严重发绀的龟头，阴茎背皮肤中度水肿。血浆D-二聚体水平为8.57 mg/L。尿流未见异常，彩色多普勒超声检查血流正常。 干预措施: 患者皮下注射依诺肝素 (低分子肝素) 和外用2.5% 双氢睾酮治疗成功。 结果: 第5天阴茎龟头的外观接近正常，而D-二聚体的对照水平降至参考范围。患者于第6天出院。6个月随访时，阴茎龟头外观正常。 教训: 包皮环切术后急性阴茎龟头缺血是一种罕见的并发症。用依诺肝素和局部用双氢睾酮成功治疗，此前文献中未见报道。
METHODS::Veterinary educators use models to allow repetitive practice of surgical skills leading to clinical competence. Canine castration is a commonly performed procedure that is considered a Day One competency for a veterinarian. In this study, we sought to create and evaluate a canine pre-scrotal closed castration model and grading rubric using a validation framework of content evidence, internal structure evidence, and relationship with other variables. Veterinarians (n = 8) and students (n = 32) were recorded while they performed a castration on the model and provided survey feedback. A subset of the students (n = 7) then performed a live canine castration, and their scores were compared with their model scores. One hundred percent of the veterinarians and 91% of the students reported that the model was helpful in training for canine castration. They highlighted several areas for continued improvement. Veterinarians' model performance scores were significantly higher than students', indicating that the model had adequate features to differentiate expert from novice performance. Students' performance on the model strongly correlated with their performance of live castration (r = .82). Surgical time was also strongly correlated (r = .70). The internal consistency of model and live rubric scores were good at .85 and .94, respectively. The framework supported validation of the model and rubric. The canine castration model facilitated cost-efficient practice in a safe environment in which students received instructor feedback and learned through experience without the risk of negatively affecting a patient's well-being. The strong correlation between model and live animal performance scores suggests that the model could be useful for mastery learning.
METHODS:PURPOSE:To investigate whether hexaminolevulinate-based (HAL) bladder tumor resection (TURBT) impacts on outcomes of patients with primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) who were eventually treated with radical cystectomy (RC). METHODS:A total of 131 consecutive patients exhibiting NMIBC at primary diagnosis were retrospectively investigated whether they had undergone any HAL-guided TURBT prior to RC. Uni- and multivariable analyses were used to evaluate the impact of HAL-TURBT on cancer-specific (CSS) and overall survival (OS). The median follow-up was 38 months (IQR 13-56). RESULTS:Of the 131 patients, 69 (52.7%) were managed with HAL- and 62 (47.3%) with white light (WL)-TURBT only prior to RC. HAL-TURBT was associated with a higher number of TURBTs prior to RC (p = 0.002) and administration of intravesical chemotherapy (p = 0.043). A trend towards a higher rate of tumor-associated immune cell infiltrates in RC specimens (p = 0.07) and a lower utilization rate of post-operative systemic chemotherapy (p = 0.10) was noted for patients who were treated with HAL-TURBT. The 5-year CSS/OS was 90.9%/74.5% for the HAL-group and 73.8%/55.8% for the WL-group (p = 0.042/0.038). In multivariable analysis, lymph node tumor involvement (p = 0.007), positive surgical margins (p = 0.001) and performance of WL-TURBT only (p = 0.040) were independent predictors for cancer-specific death. CONCLUSIONS:The present data suggest that the resection of NMIBC under HAL exerts a beneficial impact on outcomes of patients who will need to undergo RC during their course of disease. This finding may be due to improved risk stratification as the resection under HAL may allow more patients to be treated timely and adequately.
METHODS:PURPOSE:To investigate the incidence of inguinal hernia following radical prostatectomy we compared the incidence after open retropubic radical prostatectomy with the incidence after the laparoscopic and robot-assisted radical prostatectomies, and using control groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We included all original articles on studies providing data on inguinal hernia incidence in patients treated with radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. PubMed® and EMBASE® were searched on February 28, 2018. A meta-analysis was done as a weighted and pooled estimate of the incidence of inguinal hernia. The bias risk was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cohort studies and the Cochrane Collaboration tool for randomized clinical trials. RESULTS:We included 54 studies with a total of 101,687 patients. The estimated incidence of inguinal hernia was 13.7% (95% CI 12.0-15.4) after open retropubic radical prostatectomy, 7.5% (95% CI 5.2-9.8) after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and 7.9% (95% CI 5.0-10.9) after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. In studies comparing the incidence of inguinal hernia after open prostatectomy vs no treatment the incidence was significantly higher in the radical prostatectomy group (11.7%, 95% CI 9.2-14.2 vs 3.3%, 95% CI 2.0-4.6). Two of 3 studies showed a significantly higher incidence after laparoscopic and robot-assisted radical prostatectomies compared with a control group. Most studies of intraoperative inguinal hernia prevention techniques demonstrated a significantly lower inguinal hernia incidence in the experimental group. Inguinal hernias that developed after radical prostatectomy were primarily indirect (81.9%, 95% CI 75.3-88.4). CONCLUSIONS:We found a high incidence of inguinal hernia following radical prostatectomy and hernias were primarily of the indirect type. The highest incidence of inguinal hernia was noted after open radical prostatectomy, followed by laparoscopic and robot-assisted radical prostatectomies. There was no significant difference between the laparoscopic and robot-assisted groups. The incidence of inguinal hernia was significantly higher after open radical prostatectomy than in control groups with some evidence to support the same finding for the laparoscopic and robot-assisted approaches. Promising results have been reported in studies of intraoperative prophylactic surgical techniques to reduce the postoperative incidence of inguinal hernia.