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Kidney Transplantation in the Times of COVID-19 - A Literature Review.

肾移植新型冠状病毒肺炎-文献复习.

  • 影响因子:1.25
  • DOI:10.12659/AOT.925755
  • 作者列表:"Imam A","Abukhalaf SA","Imam R","Abu-Gazala S","Merhav H","Khalaileh A
  • 发表时间:2020-07-24
Abstract

:Kidney transplantation at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic is challenging. Modifying the immunosuppression protocols is controversial and not evidence based. In this study, we aim to review the published literature of kidney transplant recipients who encountered COVID-19. A literature review was performed using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and World Health Organization databases to identify relevant English-language articles published up to May 7, 2020. There were 24 articles that reported 129 kidney transplant recipients who encountered COVID-19. The age mean was 54.2 years with 73.7% as males. The most commonly reported presentations in order were fever (82.3%), cough (58%), shortness of breath (33.2%), and fatigue (30.7%). Acute kidney injury was observed in 34.1% of patients. Kidney transplant patients encountered COVID-19 were maintained on tacrolimus (Tac, 92%), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, 78.8%), and prednisone (Pred, 77%) and were manage by holding MMF in 79.1% of patients and holding Tac in 34.4% of patients. In all, 20% of patients needed Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and 24.6% of patients required mechanical ventilation. In all, 18.8% of patients had died compared to the reported general population COVID-19 mortality of 3.4%. The clinical presentation of COVID-19 in kidney transplant recipients may be different from the general population with a higher rate of severe disease, complications including renal failure, and mortality.

摘要

: 新型冠状病毒肺炎大流行时期的肾移植具有挑战性。修改免疫抑制方案是有争议的,不是基于证据的。在这项研究中,我们的目的是回顾已发表的文献肾移植受者谁遇到新型冠状病毒肺炎。使用PubMed、ScienceDirect和世界卫生组织数据库进行文献综述,以确定截至2020年5月7日发表的相关英文文章。有24篇文章报道了新型冠状病毒肺炎遇到的129例肾移植受者。平均年龄为54.2岁,73.7% 为男性。最常报告的表现依次为发热 (82.3%) 、咳嗽 (58%) 、呼吸短促 (33.2%) 乏力30.7%)。在34.1% 的患者中观察到急性肾损伤。新型冠状病毒肺炎遇到的肾移植患者维持他克莫司 (Tac,92%) 、吗替麦考酚酯 (MMF,78.8%) 和泼尼松 (Pred,77%),并通过在79.1% 的患者中保持MMF和在34.4% 的患者中保持Tac来处理。总之,20% 的患者需要重症监护病房 (ICU) 入院,24.6% 的患者需要机械通气。总的来说,18.8% 的患者死亡,而报道的一般人群新型冠状病毒肺炎死亡率为3.4%。新型冠状病毒肺炎在肾移植受者中的临床表现可能不同于具有较高严重疾病、并发症 (包括肾衰竭) 和死亡率的普通人群。

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影响因子:1.44
发表时间:2020-01-01
DOI:10.1111/nep.13574
作者列表:["Mac K","Hedley J","Kelly PJ","Lee VW","Agar JWM","Hawley CM","Johnson DW","See EJ","Polkinghorne KR","Rabindranath KS","Sud K","Webster AC"]

METHODS:BACKGROUND:The use of haemodiafiltration (HDF) for the management of patients with end-stage kidney failure is increasing worldwide. Factors associated with HDF use have not been studied and may vary in different countries and jurisdictions. The aim of this study was to document the pattern of increase and variability in uptake of HDF in Australia and New Zealand, and to describe patient- and centre-related factors associated with its use. METHODS:Using the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, all incident patients commencing haemodialysis (HD) between 2000 and 2014 were included. The primary outcome was HDF commencement over time, which was evaluated using multivariable logistic regression stratified by country. RESULTS:Of 27 433 patients starting HD, 3339 (14.4%) of 23 194 patients in Australia and 810 (19.1%) of 4239 in New Zealand received HDF. HDF uptake increased over time in both countries but was more rapid in New Zealand than Australia. In Australia, HDF use was more likely in males (odds ratio (OR) 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.24, P = 0.009) and less likely with older age (reference <40 years; 40-54 years OR = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.72-0.99; 55-69 years OR = 0.79; 95% CI = 0.67-0.91; >70 years OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.41-0.56); higher body mass index (body mass index (BMI) < 18.5 kg/m2 OR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.46-0.84; 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 reference; >30 kg/m2 OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.33-1.61), chronic lung disease (OR = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.76-0.94; P < 0.001), cerebrovascular disease (OR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.67-0.85; P < 0.001) and peripheral vascular disease (OR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.70-0.85; P < 0.001). No association was identified with race. In New Zealand, HDF use was more likely in Maori and Pacific Islanders (OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.05-1.66) and Asians (OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.15-2.68) compared to Caucasians, and less likely in males (OR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.62-0.94; P = 0.01). No association was identified with BMI or co-morbidities. In both countries, centres with a higher ratio of HD to peritoneal dialysis (PD) were more likely to prescribe HDF. Larger Australian centres were more likely to prescribe HDF (36-147 new patients/year OR = 26.75, 95% CI = 18.54-38.59; 17-35/year OR = 7.51, 95% CI = 5.35-10.55; 7-16/year OR = 3.00; 95% CI = 2.19-4.13; ≤6/year reference). CONCLUSION:Haemodiafiltration uptake is increasing, variable and associated with both patient and centre characteristics. Centre characteristics not explicitly captured elsewhere explained 36% of variability in HDF uptake in Australia and 48% in New Zealand.

翻译标题与摘要 下载文献
影响因子:1.44
发表时间:2020-01-01
DOI:10.1111/nep.13586
作者列表:["Touzot M","Seris P","Maheas C","Vanmassenhove J","Langlois AL","Moubakir K","Laplanche S","Petitclerc T","Ridel C","Lavielle M"]

METHODS:AIM:Clinical interpretation of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in haemodialysis (HD) patients for fluid management remains elusive. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective observational monocentric study. We built a mathematical model to predict BNP levels, using multiple linear regressions. Fifteen clinical/biological characteristics associated with BNP variation were selected. A first cohort of 150 prevalent HD (from September 2015 to March 2016) was used to build several models. The best model proposed was internally validated in an independent cohort of 75 incidents HD (from March 2016 to December 2017). RESULTS:In cohort 1, mean BNP level was 630 ± 717 ng/mL. Cardiac disease (CD - stable coronary artery disease and/or atrial fibrillation) was present in 45% of patients. The final model includes age, systolic blood pressure, albumin, CD, normo-hydrated weight (NHW) and the fluid overload (FO) assessed by bio-impedancemetry. The correlation between the measured and the predicted log-BNP was 0.567 and 0.543 in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. Age (β = 3.175e-2 , P < 0.001), CD (β = 5.243e-1 , P < 0.001) and FO (β = 1.227e-1 , P < 0.001) contribute most significantly to the BNP level, respectively, but within a certain range. We observed a logistic relationship between BNP and age between 30 and 60 years, after which this relationship was lost. BNP level was inversely correlated with NHW independently of CD. Finally, our model allows us to predict the BNP level according to the FO. CONCLUSION:We developed a mathematical model capable of predicting the BNP level in HD. Our results show the complex contribution of age, CD and FO on BNP level.

翻译标题与摘要 下载文献
影响因子:1.44
发表时间:2020-01-01
DOI:10.1111/nep.13588
作者列表:["Yeh EL","Chen CH","Huang SC","Huang YC"]

METHODS:AIM:The removal of cysteine during a dialysis procedure may affect glutathione (GSH) concentration, allowing haemodialysis (HD) patients to become more susceptible to oxidative damage. This study was performed to determine whether the change of GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) redox state and GSH redox potential were linked with the change of cysteine or oxidative stress in patients receiving HD treatment. METHODS:Sixty-seven HD patients who had received regular HD treatment were recruited. Plasma GSH, GSSG, cysteine and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured at both pre- and post-HD. RESULTS:Plasma cysteine, GSH and GSSG levels significantly decreased after the completion of HD, compared to the levels at pre-HD. Plasma MDA concentration, GSH/GSSG ratio and GSH redox potential remained constant during the dialysis session. Plasma GSH and GSSG were positively associated with plasma MDA at post-HD, while GSH redox potential was negatively associated with plasma MDA at post-HD. However, plasma GSH, GSSG, GSH/GSSG ratio and GSH redox potential were not associated with plasma cysteine at either pre- or post-HD. CONCLUSION:The GSH and GSSG levels were significantly utilized during a HD session, and their levels were significantly associated with increased oxidative stress. HD patients may require higher GSH demands to cope with increased oxidative stress during an HD session.

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肾脏替代治疗方向

肾脏功能在受到损害后绝大多数情况下为不可逆的过程,在进入到终末期之后只能采取肾脏替代治疗。肾脏替代治疗一般分成三类:肾脏移植、血液透析和腹膜透析。

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