- 作者列表："Gorospe L","García-Gómez-Muriel I","Pian-Arias HG","Gómez-Ramírez J","Rioja-Martín ME","Olmedo-García ME","Garrido-López P","Muñoz-Molina GM","Mezquita L
:Pembrolizumab, a programmed death 1 inhibitor, has been shown to have clinically significant efficacy in different types of cancer, providing long-term survival benefit for patients with lung cancer. Herein, we report the development of a primary thyroid cancer in a lung cancer patient that was being treated with pembrolizumab. Primary thyroid malignancy (and not only metastatic disease or immunotherapy-induced thyroiditis) should be considered in patients with lung cancer being treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors who develop new incidental thyroid lesions on imaging studies.
: 帕博利珠单抗是一种程序性死亡1抑制剂，已被证明对不同类型的癌症具有临床显着疗效，为肺癌患者提供长期生存益处。在此，我们报告了正在接受帕博利珠单抗治疗的肺癌患者的原发性甲状腺癌的发展。原发性甲状腺恶性肿瘤 (不仅仅是转移性疾病或免疫治疗引起的甲状腺炎) 应考虑接受免疫检查点抑制剂治疗的肺癌患者，这些患者在影像学研究中出现新的偶然甲状腺病变。
METHODS::Ancillary molecular testing has emerged as a promising way to refine the preoperative risk stratification of thyroid nodules with indeterminate fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy results. Commercially available molecular tests for thyroid FNAs include those that analyze samples for mutations and gene fusions, gene expression alterations, microRNA expression alterations, chromosomal copy number alterations, or a combination thereof. This review summarizes the performance characteristics of the most current iterations of three tests currently marketed for cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules: ThyroSeq v3, ThyGeNEXT/ThyraMIR, and Afirma Gene Sequencing Classifier.
METHODS:OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS:The definition of large-volume pathologic N1 metastases has been changed in the 2017 version 2 of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, leading to a controversy over the optimal surgical approach selection for patients with biopsy-proven papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of total thyroidectomy (TT) and thyroid lobectomy (TL) for these patients. STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective population-based database analysis. METHODS:A total of 906 consecutive PTC patients with pathologic N1 metastases (>5 involved nodes with metastases ≤5 mm in the largest dimension) were retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, and divided into two groups (≤2 mm, >2-5 mm) based on the size of the extent of disease. Overall survival (OS) was then compared between patients treated with TT and TL, followed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to explore multiple prognostic factors. RESULTS:OS favored TT compared with TL in patients with more than five involved nodes and metastases >2 to 5 mm in the largest dimension (P < .05). Cox analysis showed that the TL was not an independent factor associated with poorer OS than TT in these patients (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS:TT showed better survival than TL for patients with more than five involved nodes and metastases >2 to 5 mm in the largest dimension. For patients with more than five involved nodes and metastases ≤2 mm in the largest dimension, either TT or TL can be recommended because there was no difference in survival. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:NA Laryngoscope, 130:269-273, 2020.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Obesity, diabetes mellitus may be related to the health, the relationship and the physiological capacity of the production of thyroid hormones (TH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). OBJECTIVES:The main aims of this review are to describe the relationship between obesity, appetite, weight management, hormonal mechanisms of diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism post-bariatric surgery. METHODOLOGY:An in-depth literature search was conducted to identify scientific studies, which analyzed the correlation between diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism post-bariatric surgery. RESULTS:Bariatric surgery decreases hypothyroidism, reduces the need for pharmacological action (such as levothyroxine), controls the weight and body fat and increases the sensitivity to leptin and insulin. CONCLUSION:The reduction of the stomach and intestine by bariatric surgery is an evolutionary and beneficial action, because it may lead to a drastic decrease on numbers of conditions such as diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism, and others. Thus, new studies should also focus on patients' post-operatory conditions, such as lifetime, regulation and functioning of organs after reduced nutrition, and consumption and delivery of nutrients to health maintenance.