Comparison of clinical features of acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants with RSV/HRV infection, and incidences of subsequent wheezing or asthma in childhood.
- 作者列表："Ding Q","Xu L","Zhu Y","Xu B","Chen X","Duan Y","Xie Z","Shen K
BACKGROUND:To compare the clinical characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV) and to explore the relationship between the development of recurrent wheezing/asthma and RSV/ HRV infections in infancy. METHODS:Retrospective study was conducted to compare the clinical characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs). Hospitalized patients with ALRTIs from March 2007 to December 2016 were screened. Single RSV cases (s-RSV), single HRV cases (s-HRV), and cases who had co-infection with the two viruses were enrolled. Follow-up was performed to determine whether either specific respiratory virus infection was related to subsequent development of recurrent wheezing/asthma. RESULTS:The s-RSV children were the youngest (P = 0.021), they experienced the most serious condition (P < 0.001) and respiratory failure (P < 0.001), they also required highest demand of oxygen therapy (P < 0.001). And in s-RSV group, the incidence of development of recurrent wheezing was significantly higher in subgroup with the family history of wheezing than that without (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION:The s-RSV cases suffered from the worst severity of illness, respiratory failure and required highest demand of oxygen therapy. Recurrent wheezing was more common in s-RSV group with family history of wheezing than those without.
背景: 比较呼吸道合胞病毒 (RSV) 和人鼻病毒 (HRV) 所致急性下呼吸道感染 (ALRTIs) 的临床特点，探讨婴幼儿反复喘息/哮喘的发生与RSV/ HRV感染的关系。 方法: 回顾性分析比较急性下呼吸道感染 (ALRTIs).筛选2007年3月至2016年12月住院的alrti患者。纳入单一RSV病例 (s-rsv) 、单一HRV病例 (s-hrv) 和两种病毒共感染的病例。随访，以确定是否特异性呼吸道病毒感染有关的后续发展反复喘息/哮喘. 结果: s-rsv患儿年龄最小 (p <0.021)，病情最严重 (p <0.001)，呼吸衰竭 (p <0.001)，对氧疗的需求最高 (p <0.001)。在s-RSV组中，有喘息家族史的亚组反复喘息的发生率明显高于无喘息家族史的亚组 (p <0.001)。 结论: s-rsv病例病情最严重，呼吸衰竭，需用氧量最高。有喘息家族史的s-rsv组反复喘息较无喘息史者多见。
METHODS::There is emerging evidence for the role of posaconazole in the management of Aspergillus-related cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. The tolerability and efficacy of posaconazole in paediatric CF is not well established. We report a prospective study over a fifty-three month period evaluating the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of posaconazole in pediatric CF. Fourteen children (seven males, median age 13 years, range 3-17 years) received a total of twenty-three courses of posaconazole (13 oral suspension and 10 tablet formulation). Of these patient episodes, nine received posaconazole for emerging or active allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and two required a combination of posaconazole and systemic corticosteroids for difficult-to-treat ABPA. A subgroup of patients (n = 12) with persistent isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus, in the absence of serological markers of ABPA, received posaconazole monotherapy for pulmonary exacerbations not responding to conventional broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. Posaconazole levels, full blood count, electrolytes, and liver function were monitored on day 7 of treatment and then monthly. Posaconazole was well tolerated in all but three patients. Therapeutic plasma levels >1 mg/l were achieved in all receiving the tablet formulation in comparison to 60% on the liquid preparation. There was a modest but significant improvement in FEV1 (% predicted) demonstrated for the cohort as a whole (p = 0.015) following posaconazole therapy. Posaconazole is well tolerated in children as young as six years old, improvements in lung function are observed, and therapeutic plasma levels are readily achieved in patients taking the tablet formulation and in adherent patients taking the liquid formulation.
METHODS::The relationship between the cellular immune response during Trichuris trichiura infection and asthma has not yet been established. In this study, the cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17A were evaluated in asthmatic children harboring T. trichiura. For this assessment, asthmatic and non-asthmatic children (ISAAC questionnaire) were submitted to parasitological tests and blood samples were cultured (mitogen stimulation) for cytokine measurements in the supernatant. Asthma frequencies were similar in infected and uninfected children, but IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 levels were high in the infected asthmatic children. Additionally, infected non-asthmatic children exhibited high levels of these cytokines in relation to uninfected non-asthmatic children; however, cytokine levels were lower when compared with infected and asthmatic children. Therefore, T. trichiura infection positively modulated the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in asthmatic children, but a background of asthma seemed to narrow the production of cytokines induced by this helminth.
METHODS::In a recent meta-analysis, we found that atopic diseases, like asthma and allergic rhinitis, occur more frequently prior to the onset of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Our aim was to determine the temporal order of the association between daily fluctuations in atopic disease symptoms and in ADHD symptoms in individual participants. In this observational study among 21 participants, age 7-16 years, we performed a replicated time-series analysis of symptom fluctuations in asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and ADHD. Data were collected through parents who filled in a daily online questionnaire during up to 50 days. In each individual, we investigated the temporal order of fluctuations in atopic disease symptoms and ADHD symptoms using a vector autoregressive (VAR) model while using sleep problems and medication use as covariates. For 16 out of 21 participants, we constructed a VAR model. For a majority of the participants, significant associations were detected between atopic disease symptoms and ADHD symptoms. The results were heterogeneous; the direction, sign, and timing of the relationship between ADHD, atopy, sleep problems, and medication use varied between individuals. This study provides additional evidence that the symptom expression of atopy and ADHD are related. However, the connection between both diseases in children is found to be heterogeneous within our study population.