Age-Dependent Changes in the Cochlea.


  • 影响因子:3.70
  • DOI:10.1159/000499582
  • 作者列表:"Fischer N","Johnson Chacko L","Glueckert R","Schrott-Fischer A
  • 发表时间:2020-01-01

:Age-related hearing loss is a progressive, bilateral, and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss due to degeneration of inner ear structures and it is considered a multifactorial complex disorder. Changes in tissue performance act from the cellular level to the molecular level. Histological visible damage in different structures of the inner ear signifies that the high frequency region is more sensitive and earlier affected. For many years it has been known that, with advancing age, there is an increasing loss of outer and inner hair cells and peripheral and central neurons. Furthermore, it comes to an atrophy of the stria vascularis. In recent years, investigations of the inner ear have shown that a loss of cochlear nerve synapses also plays an important role in age-related hearing loss. Degeneration of cochlear nerve synapses at the inner hair cell leads to a worsening of complex auditory tasks, such as understanding speech in difficult listening environments with minimal effects on pure-tone thresholds. This phenomenon has been called "hidden hearing loss." Recent research has shown that senescence of the immune system plays an important role in age-related degeneration of the inner ear, termed inflammaging. A mild form of chronic systemic inflammatory response is thought to activate cochlear macrophages.


: 与年龄相关的听力损失是由于内耳结构退化而导致的进行性、双侧和对称性感音神经性听力损失,被认为是一种多因素复杂的疾病。组织性能的变化从细胞水平到分子水平起作用。内耳不同结构的组织学可见损伤表明高频区域更敏感且更早受到影响。多年来,已经知道,随着年龄的增长,外毛细胞和内毛细胞以及外周和中枢神经元的损失增加。此外,它涉及血管纹的萎缩。近年来,对内耳的研究表明,耳蜗神经突触的缺失也在与年龄相关的听力损失中起重要作用。内毛细胞处的耳蜗神经突触的退化导致复杂听觉任务的恶化,例如在困难的听力环境中理解语音,而对纯音阈值的影响最小。这种现象被称为 “隐性听力损失”。最近的研究表明,免疫系统的衰老在内耳的年龄相关变性 (称为炎症) 中起重要作用。轻度形式的慢性全身性炎症反应被认为激活耳蜗巨噬细胞。



作者列表:["Butcher E","Dezateux C","Knowles RL"]

METHODS:OBJECTIVE:While several perinatal risk factors for permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) are known, association with gestational length remains unclear. We hypothesised that shorter gestational length predicts higher PCHI risk. DESIGN:19 504 participants from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (born 2000-2002, prior to newborn screening). METHODS:Multivariable discrete-time survival analysis to examine associations between parent-reported PCHI by age 11 years and gestational length, plus other prespecified factors. RESULTS:PCHI affected 2.1 per 1000 children (95% CI 1.5 to 3.0) by age 11; however, gestational length did not predict PCHI risk (HR, 95% CI 1.00, 0.98 to 1.03 per day increase). Risk was increased in those with neonatal illness, with or without admission to neonatal care (6.33, 2.27 to 17.63 and 2.62, 1.15 to 5.97, respectively), of Bangladeshi or Pakistani ethnicity (2.78, 1.06 to 7.31) or born to younger mothers (0.92, 0.87 to 0.97 per year). CONCLUSION:Neonatal illness, rather than gestational length, predicts PCHI risk. Further research should explore associations with ethnicity.

关键词: 耳聋 流行病学
翻译标题与摘要 下载文献
作者列表:["Öçal R","Akın Öçal FC","Güllüev M","Alataş N"]

METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Sudden hearing loss is a significant otologic emergency. Previous studies have revealed a coexistence of sudden hearing loss with chronic inflammation. The predictive importance of C-reactive protein/albumin values as a prognostic factor has been shown in various inflammatory and tumoral conditions. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to determine whether the C-reactive protein/albumin ratio in sudden hearing loss can be used for prognostic purposes and whether there is a relationship between the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and the C-reactive protein/albumin ratio. METHODS:A retrospective examination was made of 40 patients diagnosed with idiopathic sudden hearing loss and a control group of 45 healthy subjects. The pure tone averages of all the patients were determined on first presentation and repeated at 3 months after the treatment. The patients were separated into 2 groups according to the response to treatment. The neutrophil/lynphocyte ratio and the C-reactive protein/albumin ratios were calculated from the laboratory tests. RESULTS:The patients included 16 females and 24 males with a mean age of 44.1±14.2 years and the control group was composed of 23 females and 22 males with a mean age of 42.2±13.8 years. The mean C-reactive protein/albumin ratio was 0.95±0.47 in the patient group and 0.74±0.13 in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (p=0.009). The mean C-reactive protein/albumin ratio was 0.79±0.12 in the response to treatment group and 1.27±0.72 in the non-response group, with no significant difference determined between the groups (p=0.418). The mean neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio was 3.52±3.00 in the response to treatment group and 4.90±4.60 in the non-response group, with no statistically significant difference determined between the groups (p=0.261). CONCLUSION:C-reactive/albumin ratio was significantly higher in patients with sudden hearing loss than in the control group. Although C-reactive protein/albumin ratio was found to be lower in sudden hearing loss patients who responded to treatment compared to those who did not, the difference between two groups was not statistically significant.

作者列表:["Scarabello EM","Lamônica DAC","Morettin-Zupelari M","Tanamati LF","Campos PD","Alvarenga KF","Moret ALM"]

METHODS:INTRODUCTION:The cochlear implant is an effective device for children with severe and/or profound prelingual hearing loss, since it provides considerable improvement in oral language acquisition through the auditory pathway. The use of a cochlear implant contributes to the development of auditory perception, favoring the acquisition of the linguistic processes related to communication skills, which might have a positive effect on other areas of development. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to verify the performance of children using cochlear implants for expressive and receptive oral language. METHODS:This was a prospective cross-sectional study that used the following tests: Child language test in the phonology, vocabulary, fluency and pragmatics areas, and the Peabody picture vocabulary test. Thirty children participated in this study, of both genders, aged between 36 and 72 months, with severe and/or profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, without other impairments and users of unilateral cochlear implant with full electrode insertion for a minimum of 12 months. RESULTS:The longer duration of the cochlear implant use, the younger age at surgery and the better performance in the auditory perception of speech influenced the performance in expressive and receptive oral language. Even though when compared to the normative language acquisition process, the results showed that these children had patterns of linguistic skills that are below their chronological age; the results indicate that these children are developing expressive and receptive oral language skills, and this is the outcome that should be taken into account in this study. CONCLUSION:The longer duration of the cochlear implant use, the younger age at surgery and the better performance in the auditory perception of speech influenced the performance in expressive and receptive oral language skills, but not in all the studied semantic categories.