- 作者列表："Zarkowsky DS","Wu B","Gray AT","Oskowitz AZ","Vartanian SM
OBJECTIVE:Regional anesthesia (RA)-induced vasodilation increases the proportion of patients with vein anatomy suitable for arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation. The functional outcomes of AVFs created with veins initially small for size on preoperative duplex ultrasound mapping (≤2.4 mm) that are recruited under RA have not been clearly defined. We aimed to evaluate freedom from revision or thrombosis, time to first cannulation, and reintervention rates of AVFs created with veins recruited after induction of RA. METHODS:A prospectively maintained quality improvement database from a single institution was queried for patients who had dialysis access created under RA. We compared AVFs created according to the original surgical plan (preoperative minimum vein diameter >2.5 mm) with AVFs recruited with RA (preoperative minimum vein diameter ≤2.4 mm). End points included freedom from revision or thrombosis, time to first cannulation, and reintervention rates. RESULTS:Between May 2014 and April 2018, there were 208 dialysis access cases performed under RA. Excluding grafts, revisions, patients with previous ipsilateral AVFs, and those without preoperative ultrasound vein mapping, 135 patients were included in our analysis. Induction of RA with intraoperative duplex ultrasound allowed a change in surgical plan in 55 of 135 (42%) patients (recruited with RA), including 31 patients originally scheduled for an arteriovenous graft (mean preoperative distal upper arm cephalic vein diameter of 1.8 mm [standard deviation, 0.2 mm]) who were converted to an AVF (12 brachiobasilic, 11 brachiocephalic, and 8 radiocephalic). The remaining patients in the group of AVFs recruited with RA included 13 scheduled for brachiobasilic configurations who were converted to brachiocephalic or radiocephalic AVFs and 11 scheduled for brachiocephalic AVFs who were converted to radiocephalic AVFs. Comparing AVFs created according to the original surgical plan vs AVFs recruited with RA, there were no differences in reintervention rates (48% vs 49%; P = .90) or functional outcomes at 6 months (60% vs 65% used on hemodialysis [P = .58] and 7% vs 2% primary failure [P = .19]). CONCLUSIONS:In this series, RA increased the proportion of patients who underwent AVF creation without compromising functional outcomes. Routine use of RA in access surgery could have significant implications in meeting national guidelines for autogenous access in the prevalent hemodialysis population.
目的: 区域麻醉 (RA) 诱导的血管扩张增加了患者静脉解剖结构适合动静脉瘘 (AVF) 创建的比例。在RA下招募的术前双重超声标测 (≤ 2.4毫米mm) 中，由最初尺寸较小的静脉创建的avf的功能结局尚未明确定义.我们的目的是评估RA诱导后用静脉募集创建的avf的无翻修或血栓形成、首次插管时间和再干预率。 方法: 查询来自单一机构的前瞻性维护的质量改进数据库，以获取在RA下创建的透析访问权限的患者。我们比较了根据原始手术计划创建的AVFs (术前最小静脉直径> 2.5毫米mm) 与RA招募的AVFs (术前最小静脉直径 ≤ 2.4毫米mm)。终点包括无翻修或血栓形成、首次插管时间和再干预率. 结果: 在2014年5月至2018年4月期间，有208例透析通路病例在RA下进行。排除移植物、翻修、既往有同侧avf的患者以及术前未进行超声静脉标测的患者，我们的分析纳入了135例患者.通过术中双重超声诱导RA，135名患者中的55名 (42%) 患者 (招募了RA) 改变了手术计划，包括31名最初计划进行动静脉移植的患者 (术前上臂远端头静脉平均直径为1.8毫米mm [标准差，0.2毫米])他们被转换为AVF (12个腕关节，11个头臂和8个放射头)。在RA招募的avf组中，其余患者包括13例计划为臂臂型avf的患者，这些患者被转换为头臂型或头臂型avf，11例计划为头臂型avf的患者被转换为头臂型avf.比较根据原始手术计划创建的avf与RA招募的avf，在再干预率 (48% vs 49%; P = .90) 或6个月时的功能结局 (60% vs 65% 用于血液透析) 方面没有差异 [P = .58] 和7% vs 2% 原发性失败 [P = .19])。 结论: 在本系列中，RA增加了接受AVF创建的患者的比例，而不影响功能结局。在普遍血液透析人群中，RA在入路手术中的常规使用可能对满足国家自体入路指南有重要意义。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Anxiety and distress behaviors during anesthesia induction are associated with negative postoperative outcomes for pediatric patients. Documenting behavioral responses to induction is useful to evaluate induction quality at hospitals and to optimize future anesthetics for returning patients, but we lack a simple tool for clinical documentation. The Induction Compliance Checklist is a tool for grading induction behaviors that is well validated for research purposes, but it is not practical for routine documentation in busy clinical practice settings. The Child Induction Behavioral Assessment tool was developed to provide a simple and easy to use electronic tool for clinical documentation of induction behaviors. The aim of this study was to test the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment tool's concurrent validity with the Induction Compliance Checklist and the interrater reliability. METHODS:This prospective, observational study included 384 pediatric patients undergoing anesthesia inhalation induction. Concurrent validity with the Induction Compliance Checklist and interrater reliability of the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment were evaluated. Two researchers alternated scoring the Induction Compliance Checklist. The 2 researchers independently scored the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment. The anesthesia clinician caring for the patient also independently scored the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment by completing their routine documentation in the patient's medical record. Two age groups were evaluated (ages 1-3 and 4-12 years old). RESULTS:Clinicians' and researchers' Child Induction Behavioral Assessment scores demonstrated a strong correlation with the Induction Compliance Checklist (P < .0001). There was an excellent agreement between the 2 researchers' Child Induction Behavioral Assessment scores for the younger and older age groups, respectively (Kappa [95% CI] = 0.97 (0.94-0.99); K = 0.94 (0.89-0.99)]. The agreement between the researchers and the 117 clinicians who documented Child Induction Behavioral Assessment assessments in the medical record was good overall (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.70), with fair agreement with the 1- to 3-year-old patients (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.56) and good agreement for the 4- to 12-year-old patients (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.74). CONCLUSIONS:The Child Induction Behavioral Assessment scale is a simple and practical electronic tool used to document pediatric behavioral responses to anesthesia inductions. This study provides evidence of the tool's validity and reliability for inhalation inductions. Future research is needed at other hospitals to confirm validity.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Fentanyl and morphine are the 2 most commonly added opioids to bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia during cesarean delivery. Numerous clinical trials have assessed efficacy and safety of different doses of fentanyl added to intrathecal bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia, yet its benefit, harm, and optimal dose remain unclear. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence of the efficacy of fentanyl when added to intrathecal bupivacaine alone and when added to bupivacaine with morphine for spinal anesthesia during cesarean delivery. METHODS:Key electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library) were searched for randomized controlled trials in the cesarean delivery population. The primary outcome was the failure rate of spinal anesthesia, as assessed by the need for either conversion to general anesthesia or intraoperative analgesic supplementation. Two reviewers independently extracted the data using a standardized electronic form. Results are expressed as relative risks or mean differences with 95% CIs. RESULTS:Seventeen randomized controlled clinical trials (most judged as low or unclear risk of bias) with 1064 participants provided data for the meta-analysis. Fentanyl added to intrathecal bupivacaine alone reduced the need for intraoperative supplemental analgesia (relative risk, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.11-0.27; number needed to treat, 4) and the incidence of nausea/vomiting (relative risk, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.70; number needed to treat, 6.5), with longer time to first postoperative analgesia request (mean difference, 91 minutes; 95% CI, 69-113). No difference was observed regarding the need for conversion to general anesthesia (relative risk, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.12-3.57), the incidence of hypotension, the onset of sensory block, or the duration of motor block. However, the addition of intrathecal fentanyl was associated with higher incidence of intraoperative pruritus (relative risk, 5.89; 95% CI, 2.07-16.79; number needed to harm, 13.5). The inclusion of fentanyl to intrathecal bupivacaine-morphine compared to intrathecal bupivacaine-morphine alone conferred a similar benefit, with a significantly reduced need for intraoperative supplemental analgesia (relative risk, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-0.95; number needed to treat, 9). Analysis using a funnel plot indicated a possibility of publication bias in included studies. CONCLUSIONS:Current evidence suggests a benefit of using fentanyl as both an additive to intrathecal bupivacaine alone and to intrathecal bupivacaine combined with morphine for cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. The possibility of publication bias, small sample size, and high risk of bias in some of the included studies warrant treating the results with caution.
METHODS::Ophthalmic pediatric regional anesthesia has been widely described, but infrequently used. This review summarizes the available evidence supporting the use of conduction anesthesia in pediatric ophthalmic surgery. Key anatomic differences in axial length, intraocular pressure, and available orbital space between young children and adults impact conduct of ophthalmic regional anesthesia. The eye is near adult size at birth and completes its growth rapidly while the orbit does not. This results in significantly diminished extraocular orbital volumes for local anesthetic deposition. Needle-based blocks are categorized by relation of the needle to the extraocular muscle cone (ie, intraconal or extraconal) and in the cannula-based block, by description of the potential space deep to the Tenon capsule. In children, blocks are placed after induction of anesthesia by a pediatric anesthesiologist or ophthalmologist, via anatomic landmarks or under ultrasonography. Ocular conduction anesthesia confers several advantages for eye surgery including analgesia, akinesia, ablation of the oculocardiac reflex, and reduction of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Short (16 mm), blunt-tip needles are preferred because of altered globe-to-orbit ratios in children. Soft-tip cannulae of varying length have been demonstrated as safe in sub-Tenon blockade. Ultrasound technology facilitates direct, real-time visualization of needle position and local anesthetic spread and reduces inadvertent intraconal needle placement. The developing eye is vulnerable to thermal and mechanical insults, so ocular-rated transducers are mandated. The adjuvant hyaluronidase improves ocular akinesia, decreases local anesthetic dosage requirements, and improves initial block success; meanwhile, dexmedetomidine increases local anesthetic potency and prolongs duration of analgesia without an increase in adverse events. Intraconal blockade is a relative contraindication in neonates and infants, retinoblastoma surgery, and in the presence of posterior staphylomas and buphthalmos. Specific considerations include pertinent pediatric ophthalmologic topics, block placement in the syndromic child, and potential adverse effects associated with each technique. Recommendations based on our experience at a busy academic ophthalmologic tertiary referral center are provided.