Examinations under anaesthesia as a measure of disease burden in unilateral retinoblastoma: the London experience.
- 作者列表："Fabian ID","Shah V","Kapelushnik N","Naeem Z","Onadim Z","Price E","Chowdhury T","Duncan C","Stansfield D","Sagoo M","Reddy MA
BACKGROUND:Early diagnosis strategies and advances in retinoblastoma (Rb) management have resulted in nearly 100% survival. More attention should, therefore, be given to quality of life considerations. We aimed to quantify the number of examinations under anaesthesia (EUAs) in a cohort of patients with Rb, as a measure of disease burden. METHODS:A retrospective analysis of patients with unilateral Rb that presented to the London Rb service from 2006 to 2013, were treated and had long-term follow-up. Correlations of clinical variables to number of EUAs were investigated. RESULTS:A total of 107 patients with Rb were included that presented at a mean age of 26.51 ± 22.68 months. The International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification (IIRC) was group B in 5 (5%), C in 13 (12%), D in 48 (45%) and E in 41 (38%) of the cases. Primary treatment was intravenous chemotherapy in 36 (34%) and enucleation in 71 (66%) of the cases. Mean number of EUAs was 20.67 ± 6.62, 12.52 ± 6.23 and 11.15 ± 6.91 for combined groups B/C, group D and group E patients (p < 0.001), respectively. On analysis, early age atpresentation and conservative treatments were found to significantly correlate with increased number of EUAs (p < 0.001). Mean follow-up time was 74.42 ± 25.16 months and no metastasis or death were reported. CONCLUSION:Families should be counselled regarding the number of EUAs associated with the patient's IIRC group, with B/C eyes undergoing twice the number as compared with D/E eyes. For group D cases, where both enucleation and conservative therapy are valid options, treatment choice has a significant impact on the number of EUAs.
背景: 早期诊断策略和视网膜母细胞瘤 (Rb) 治疗的进展已导致近100% 的生存率。因此，应该更加关注生活质量的考虑。我们的目的是量化Rb患者队列中麻醉检查 (EUAs) 的数量，作为疾病负担的衡量标准。 方法: 回顾性分析2006年至2013年间向伦敦Rb服务中心就诊的单侧Rb患者，并对其进行长期随访。研究了临床变量与EUAs数量的相关性。 结果: 共纳入107例Rb患者，平均年龄为26.51 ± 22.68个月。国际眼内视网膜母细胞瘤分类 (IIRC) 为B组5例 (12%)，C组13例 (45%)，D组48例 (38%)，E组41例 ()。主要治疗为静脉化疗36例 (34%) 和眼球摘除术71例 (66%)。合并B/C组、D组和E组患者的EUAs平均数目分别为20.67 ± 6.62、12.52 ± 6.23和11.15 ± 6.91 (p <0.001)。分析发现，早期表现和保守治疗与EUAs数量增加显著相关 (p <0.001)。平均随访时间为74.42 ± 25.16个月，未报告转移或死亡。 结论: 应该向家庭咨询与患者IIRC组相关的EUAs数量，B/C眼的数量是D/E眼的两倍。对于D组病例，其中摘除和保守治疗都是有效的选择，治疗选择对EUAs的数量有显着影响。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Anxiety and distress behaviors during anesthesia induction are associated with negative postoperative outcomes for pediatric patients. Documenting behavioral responses to induction is useful to evaluate induction quality at hospitals and to optimize future anesthetics for returning patients, but we lack a simple tool for clinical documentation. The Induction Compliance Checklist is a tool for grading induction behaviors that is well validated for research purposes, but it is not practical for routine documentation in busy clinical practice settings. The Child Induction Behavioral Assessment tool was developed to provide a simple and easy to use electronic tool for clinical documentation of induction behaviors. The aim of this study was to test the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment tool's concurrent validity with the Induction Compliance Checklist and the interrater reliability. METHODS:This prospective, observational study included 384 pediatric patients undergoing anesthesia inhalation induction. Concurrent validity with the Induction Compliance Checklist and interrater reliability of the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment were evaluated. Two researchers alternated scoring the Induction Compliance Checklist. The 2 researchers independently scored the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment. The anesthesia clinician caring for the patient also independently scored the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment by completing their routine documentation in the patient's medical record. Two age groups were evaluated (ages 1-3 and 4-12 years old). RESULTS:Clinicians' and researchers' Child Induction Behavioral Assessment scores demonstrated a strong correlation with the Induction Compliance Checklist (P < .0001). There was an excellent agreement between the 2 researchers' Child Induction Behavioral Assessment scores for the younger and older age groups, respectively (Kappa [95% CI] = 0.97 (0.94-0.99); K = 0.94 (0.89-0.99)]. The agreement between the researchers and the 117 clinicians who documented Child Induction Behavioral Assessment assessments in the medical record was good overall (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.70), with fair agreement with the 1- to 3-year-old patients (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.56) and good agreement for the 4- to 12-year-old patients (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.74). CONCLUSIONS:The Child Induction Behavioral Assessment scale is a simple and practical electronic tool used to document pediatric behavioral responses to anesthesia inductions. This study provides evidence of the tool's validity and reliability for inhalation inductions. Future research is needed at other hospitals to confirm validity.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Fentanyl and morphine are the 2 most commonly added opioids to bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia during cesarean delivery. Numerous clinical trials have assessed efficacy and safety of different doses of fentanyl added to intrathecal bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia, yet its benefit, harm, and optimal dose remain unclear. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence of the efficacy of fentanyl when added to intrathecal bupivacaine alone and when added to bupivacaine with morphine for spinal anesthesia during cesarean delivery. METHODS:Key electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library) were searched for randomized controlled trials in the cesarean delivery population. The primary outcome was the failure rate of spinal anesthesia, as assessed by the need for either conversion to general anesthesia or intraoperative analgesic supplementation. Two reviewers independently extracted the data using a standardized electronic form. Results are expressed as relative risks or mean differences with 95% CIs. RESULTS:Seventeen randomized controlled clinical trials (most judged as low or unclear risk of bias) with 1064 participants provided data for the meta-analysis. Fentanyl added to intrathecal bupivacaine alone reduced the need for intraoperative supplemental analgesia (relative risk, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.11-0.27; number needed to treat, 4) and the incidence of nausea/vomiting (relative risk, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.70; number needed to treat, 6.5), with longer time to first postoperative analgesia request (mean difference, 91 minutes; 95% CI, 69-113). No difference was observed regarding the need for conversion to general anesthesia (relative risk, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.12-3.57), the incidence of hypotension, the onset of sensory block, or the duration of motor block. However, the addition of intrathecal fentanyl was associated with higher incidence of intraoperative pruritus (relative risk, 5.89; 95% CI, 2.07-16.79; number needed to harm, 13.5). The inclusion of fentanyl to intrathecal bupivacaine-morphine compared to intrathecal bupivacaine-morphine alone conferred a similar benefit, with a significantly reduced need for intraoperative supplemental analgesia (relative risk, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-0.95; number needed to treat, 9). Analysis using a funnel plot indicated a possibility of publication bias in included studies. CONCLUSIONS:Current evidence suggests a benefit of using fentanyl as both an additive to intrathecal bupivacaine alone and to intrathecal bupivacaine combined with morphine for cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. The possibility of publication bias, small sample size, and high risk of bias in some of the included studies warrant treating the results with caution.
METHODS::Ophthalmic pediatric regional anesthesia has been widely described, but infrequently used. This review summarizes the available evidence supporting the use of conduction anesthesia in pediatric ophthalmic surgery. Key anatomic differences in axial length, intraocular pressure, and available orbital space between young children and adults impact conduct of ophthalmic regional anesthesia. The eye is near adult size at birth and completes its growth rapidly while the orbit does not. This results in significantly diminished extraocular orbital volumes for local anesthetic deposition. Needle-based blocks are categorized by relation of the needle to the extraocular muscle cone (ie, intraconal or extraconal) and in the cannula-based block, by description of the potential space deep to the Tenon capsule. In children, blocks are placed after induction of anesthesia by a pediatric anesthesiologist or ophthalmologist, via anatomic landmarks or under ultrasonography. Ocular conduction anesthesia confers several advantages for eye surgery including analgesia, akinesia, ablation of the oculocardiac reflex, and reduction of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Short (16 mm), blunt-tip needles are preferred because of altered globe-to-orbit ratios in children. Soft-tip cannulae of varying length have been demonstrated as safe in sub-Tenon blockade. Ultrasound technology facilitates direct, real-time visualization of needle position and local anesthetic spread and reduces inadvertent intraconal needle placement. The developing eye is vulnerable to thermal and mechanical insults, so ocular-rated transducers are mandated. The adjuvant hyaluronidase improves ocular akinesia, decreases local anesthetic dosage requirements, and improves initial block success; meanwhile, dexmedetomidine increases local anesthetic potency and prolongs duration of analgesia without an increase in adverse events. Intraconal blockade is a relative contraindication in neonates and infants, retinoblastoma surgery, and in the presence of posterior staphylomas and buphthalmos. Specific considerations include pertinent pediatric ophthalmologic topics, block placement in the syndromic child, and potential adverse effects associated with each technique. Recommendations based on our experience at a busy academic ophthalmologic tertiary referral center are provided.