Outcomes of primary powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy in syndromic congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction.
- 作者列表："Singh S","Selva D","Nayak A","Psaltis A","Ali MJ
:Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) in syndromic individuals with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO).Methods: A retrospective multicenter case series of patients who required a primary powered endoscopic DCR for refractory CNLDO associated with syndromes or congenital craniofacial abnormalities was performed. A minimum follow-up of more than 6 months was considered for final analysis. Main outcome measures were anatomical and functional success at the last follow up.Results: Twenty primary powered endoscopic DCR's were performed in 12 patients (7 males, 5 females) with syndromic anomalies. The mean age at the time of surgery was 7.6 years (range: 2-22 years). The associated systemic anomalies were Down syndrome (42%, 5/12), ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting (EEC) syndrome (17%, 2/12), gross craniofacial dysgenesis (25%, 3/12) Tessier cleft type 3 (8%, 1/12) and velocardiacfacial syndrome (8%, 1/12). Proximal system agenesis of the upper or lower canaliculus was present in 42% of patients (5 patients, 9 eyes). Adjunctive treatment in the form of Mitomycin C and/or intubation was performed in 55% (11/20) eyes. At a mean postoperative follow-up of 20 months, successful outcomes were noted in 95% of the eyes (19/20). The one eye with an anatomical failure was secondary to a complete cicatricial closure of the ostium and was successfully treated subsequently with a revision endoscopic DCR.Conclusion: Primary powered endoscopic DCR has good outcomes in patients with a CNLDO associated with craniofacial syndromes.
目的: 评价鼻内镜下泪囊鼻腔造口术 (DCR) 治疗先天性鼻泪管阻塞综合征 (CNLDO) 的疗效。方法: 回顾性多中心病例系列研究，对需要初次鼻内镜下DCR治疗的难治性CNLDO伴发综合征或先天性颅面畸形的患者进行评估。考虑至少超过6个月的随访进行最终分析。主要观察指标是末次随访时的解剖和功能成功。结果: 在12例 (7例男性，5例女性) 伴有综合征异常的患者中进行了20例初次动力内镜DCR。手术时的平均年龄为7.6岁 (范围: 2-22岁)。相关的系统异常为唐氏综合征 (42%，5/12) 、外翻-外胚层发育不良 (EEC) 综合征 (17%，2/12) 、肉眼颅面发育不全 (25%，3/12) 、Tessier裂3型 (8%，1/12) 和心血管面瘫综合征 (8%，1/12)。42% 的患者 (5例患者，9只眼) 存在上或下泪小管的近端系统发育不全。在55% (11/20) 只眼中进行丝裂霉素c和/或插管形式的辅助治疗。在平均20个月的术后随访中，95% 的眼睛 (19/20) 获得了成功的结果。解剖失败的一只眼睛继发于开口完全瘢痕闭合，随后成功地进行了内窥镜DCR翻修。结论: 初级动力内窥镜DCR在与颅面综合征相关的CNLDO患者中具有良好的预后。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Anxiety and distress behaviors during anesthesia induction are associated with negative postoperative outcomes for pediatric patients. Documenting behavioral responses to induction is useful to evaluate induction quality at hospitals and to optimize future anesthetics for returning patients, but we lack a simple tool for clinical documentation. The Induction Compliance Checklist is a tool for grading induction behaviors that is well validated for research purposes, but it is not practical for routine documentation in busy clinical practice settings. The Child Induction Behavioral Assessment tool was developed to provide a simple and easy to use electronic tool for clinical documentation of induction behaviors. The aim of this study was to test the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment tool's concurrent validity with the Induction Compliance Checklist and the interrater reliability. METHODS:This prospective, observational study included 384 pediatric patients undergoing anesthesia inhalation induction. Concurrent validity with the Induction Compliance Checklist and interrater reliability of the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment were evaluated. Two researchers alternated scoring the Induction Compliance Checklist. The 2 researchers independently scored the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment. The anesthesia clinician caring for the patient also independently scored the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment by completing their routine documentation in the patient's medical record. Two age groups were evaluated (ages 1-3 and 4-12 years old). RESULTS:Clinicians' and researchers' Child Induction Behavioral Assessment scores demonstrated a strong correlation with the Induction Compliance Checklist (P < .0001). There was an excellent agreement between the 2 researchers' Child Induction Behavioral Assessment scores for the younger and older age groups, respectively (Kappa [95% CI] = 0.97 (0.94-0.99); K = 0.94 (0.89-0.99)]. The agreement between the researchers and the 117 clinicians who documented Child Induction Behavioral Assessment assessments in the medical record was good overall (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.70), with fair agreement with the 1- to 3-year-old patients (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.56) and good agreement for the 4- to 12-year-old patients (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.74). CONCLUSIONS:The Child Induction Behavioral Assessment scale is a simple and practical electronic tool used to document pediatric behavioral responses to anesthesia inductions. This study provides evidence of the tool's validity and reliability for inhalation inductions. Future research is needed at other hospitals to confirm validity.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Fentanyl and morphine are the 2 most commonly added opioids to bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia during cesarean delivery. Numerous clinical trials have assessed efficacy and safety of different doses of fentanyl added to intrathecal bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia, yet its benefit, harm, and optimal dose remain unclear. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence of the efficacy of fentanyl when added to intrathecal bupivacaine alone and when added to bupivacaine with morphine for spinal anesthesia during cesarean delivery. METHODS:Key electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library) were searched for randomized controlled trials in the cesarean delivery population. The primary outcome was the failure rate of spinal anesthesia, as assessed by the need for either conversion to general anesthesia or intraoperative analgesic supplementation. Two reviewers independently extracted the data using a standardized electronic form. Results are expressed as relative risks or mean differences with 95% CIs. RESULTS:Seventeen randomized controlled clinical trials (most judged as low or unclear risk of bias) with 1064 participants provided data for the meta-analysis. Fentanyl added to intrathecal bupivacaine alone reduced the need for intraoperative supplemental analgesia (relative risk, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.11-0.27; number needed to treat, 4) and the incidence of nausea/vomiting (relative risk, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.70; number needed to treat, 6.5), with longer time to first postoperative analgesia request (mean difference, 91 minutes; 95% CI, 69-113). No difference was observed regarding the need for conversion to general anesthesia (relative risk, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.12-3.57), the incidence of hypotension, the onset of sensory block, or the duration of motor block. However, the addition of intrathecal fentanyl was associated with higher incidence of intraoperative pruritus (relative risk, 5.89; 95% CI, 2.07-16.79; number needed to harm, 13.5). The inclusion of fentanyl to intrathecal bupivacaine-morphine compared to intrathecal bupivacaine-morphine alone conferred a similar benefit, with a significantly reduced need for intraoperative supplemental analgesia (relative risk, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-0.95; number needed to treat, 9). Analysis using a funnel plot indicated a possibility of publication bias in included studies. CONCLUSIONS:Current evidence suggests a benefit of using fentanyl as both an additive to intrathecal bupivacaine alone and to intrathecal bupivacaine combined with morphine for cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. The possibility of publication bias, small sample size, and high risk of bias in some of the included studies warrant treating the results with caution.
METHODS::Ophthalmic pediatric regional anesthesia has been widely described, but infrequently used. This review summarizes the available evidence supporting the use of conduction anesthesia in pediatric ophthalmic surgery. Key anatomic differences in axial length, intraocular pressure, and available orbital space between young children and adults impact conduct of ophthalmic regional anesthesia. The eye is near adult size at birth and completes its growth rapidly while the orbit does not. This results in significantly diminished extraocular orbital volumes for local anesthetic deposition. Needle-based blocks are categorized by relation of the needle to the extraocular muscle cone (ie, intraconal or extraconal) and in the cannula-based block, by description of the potential space deep to the Tenon capsule. In children, blocks are placed after induction of anesthesia by a pediatric anesthesiologist or ophthalmologist, via anatomic landmarks or under ultrasonography. Ocular conduction anesthesia confers several advantages for eye surgery including analgesia, akinesia, ablation of the oculocardiac reflex, and reduction of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Short (16 mm), blunt-tip needles are preferred because of altered globe-to-orbit ratios in children. Soft-tip cannulae of varying length have been demonstrated as safe in sub-Tenon blockade. Ultrasound technology facilitates direct, real-time visualization of needle position and local anesthetic spread and reduces inadvertent intraconal needle placement. The developing eye is vulnerable to thermal and mechanical insults, so ocular-rated transducers are mandated. The adjuvant hyaluronidase improves ocular akinesia, decreases local anesthetic dosage requirements, and improves initial block success; meanwhile, dexmedetomidine increases local anesthetic potency and prolongs duration of analgesia without an increase in adverse events. Intraconal blockade is a relative contraindication in neonates and infants, retinoblastoma surgery, and in the presence of posterior staphylomas and buphthalmos. Specific considerations include pertinent pediatric ophthalmologic topics, block placement in the syndromic child, and potential adverse effects associated with each technique. Recommendations based on our experience at a busy academic ophthalmologic tertiary referral center are provided.