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Gentle facemask ventilation during induction of anesthesia.

麻醉诱导期面罩通气温和。

  • 影响因子:0
  • DOI:10.1016/j.ajem.2019.158399
  • 作者列表:"Zhang Q","Zhou Q","Zhang J","Zhao D
  • 发表时间:2020-06-01
Abstract

BACKGROUND:To determine the level of inspiratory pressure minimizing the risk of gastric insufflation while providing adequate pulmonary ventilation. METHODS:In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, patients were allocated to one of the two groups (P10, P15) defined by the inspiratory pressure applied during controlled-pressure ventilation: 10 and 15 cm H2O. Anesthesia was induced using propofol and sufentanil; no neuromuscular-blocking agent was administered. Once loss of eyelash reflex occurred, facemask ventilation was started for a 2-min period. The cross-sectional antral area was measured using ultrasonography before and after facemask ventilation. Respiratory parameters were recorded. RESULTS:Forty patients were analyzed. Mean tidal volume was about 7 ml/kg in group P10, and was >11 ml/kg in group P15 in the same period. As indicated by ultrasonography test, the antral area in P15 group was markedly incresed compared with P10 group. CONCLUSION:Inspiratory pressure of 10 cm H2O allowed for reduced occurrence of gastric insufflation with proper lung ventilation during induction of anesthesia with sufentanil and propofol in nonparalyzed and nonobese patients.

摘要

背景: 为了确定吸气压力水平,使胃充气的风险最小化,同时提供足够的肺通气。 方法: 在这项前瞻性,随机,双盲研究中,患者被分配到两组 (P10,P15) 中的一组,由控制压力通气期间施加的吸气压力定义: 10和15 cm cm H2O。使用丙泊酚和舒芬太尼诱导麻醉; 未给予神经肌肉阻断剂。一旦发生睫毛反射丧失,开始面罩通气2分钟。在面罩通气前后用超声测量窦横截面积。记录呼吸参数。 结果: 分析了40例患者。P10组平均潮气量约为7  ml/kg,同期P15组平均潮气量> 11  ml/kg。超声检查表明,P15组胃窦区较P10组明显增大。 结论: 在非瘫痪和非肥胖患者的舒芬太尼和丙泊酚麻醉诱导期间,适当的肺通气可以减少胃充气的发生。

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影响因子:2.27
发表时间:2020-02-01
DOI:10.1213/ANE.0000000000003945
作者列表:["Winterberg AV","Ding L","Hill LM","Stubbeman BL","Varughese AM"]

METHODS:BACKGROUND:Anxiety and distress behaviors during anesthesia induction are associated with negative postoperative outcomes for pediatric patients. Documenting behavioral responses to induction is useful to evaluate induction quality at hospitals and to optimize future anesthetics for returning patients, but we lack a simple tool for clinical documentation. The Induction Compliance Checklist is a tool for grading induction behaviors that is well validated for research purposes, but it is not practical for routine documentation in busy clinical practice settings. The Child Induction Behavioral Assessment tool was developed to provide a simple and easy to use electronic tool for clinical documentation of induction behaviors. The aim of this study was to test the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment tool's concurrent validity with the Induction Compliance Checklist and the interrater reliability. METHODS:This prospective, observational study included 384 pediatric patients undergoing anesthesia inhalation induction. Concurrent validity with the Induction Compliance Checklist and interrater reliability of the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment were evaluated. Two researchers alternated scoring the Induction Compliance Checklist. The 2 researchers independently scored the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment. The anesthesia clinician caring for the patient also independently scored the Child Induction Behavioral Assessment by completing their routine documentation in the patient's medical record. Two age groups were evaluated (ages 1-3 and 4-12 years old). RESULTS:Clinicians' and researchers' Child Induction Behavioral Assessment scores demonstrated a strong correlation with the Induction Compliance Checklist (P < .0001). There was an excellent agreement between the 2 researchers' Child Induction Behavioral Assessment scores for the younger and older age groups, respectively (Kappa [95% CI] = 0.97 (0.94-0.99); K = 0.94 (0.89-0.99)]. The agreement between the researchers and the 117 clinicians who documented Child Induction Behavioral Assessment assessments in the medical record was good overall (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.70), with fair agreement with the 1- to 3-year-old patients (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.56) and good agreement for the 4- to 12-year-old patients (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.74). CONCLUSIONS:The Child Induction Behavioral Assessment scale is a simple and practical electronic tool used to document pediatric behavioral responses to anesthesia inductions. This study provides evidence of the tool's validity and reliability for inhalation inductions. Future research is needed at other hospitals to confirm validity.

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影响因子:2.27
发表时间:2020-01-01
DOI:10.1213/ANE.0000000000003975
作者列表:["Uppal V","Retter S","Casey M","Sancheti S","Matheson K","McKeen DM"]

METHODS:BACKGROUND:Fentanyl and morphine are the 2 most commonly added opioids to bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia during cesarean delivery. Numerous clinical trials have assessed efficacy and safety of different doses of fentanyl added to intrathecal bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia, yet its benefit, harm, and optimal dose remain unclear. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence of the efficacy of fentanyl when added to intrathecal bupivacaine alone and when added to bupivacaine with morphine for spinal anesthesia during cesarean delivery. METHODS:Key electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library) were searched for randomized controlled trials in the cesarean delivery population. The primary outcome was the failure rate of spinal anesthesia, as assessed by the need for either conversion to general anesthesia or intraoperative analgesic supplementation. Two reviewers independently extracted the data using a standardized electronic form. Results are expressed as relative risks or mean differences with 95% CIs. RESULTS:Seventeen randomized controlled clinical trials (most judged as low or unclear risk of bias) with 1064 participants provided data for the meta-analysis. Fentanyl added to intrathecal bupivacaine alone reduced the need for intraoperative supplemental analgesia (relative risk, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.11-0.27; number needed to treat, 4) and the incidence of nausea/vomiting (relative risk, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.70; number needed to treat, 6.5), with longer time to first postoperative analgesia request (mean difference, 91 minutes; 95% CI, 69-113). No difference was observed regarding the need for conversion to general anesthesia (relative risk, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.12-3.57), the incidence of hypotension, the onset of sensory block, or the duration of motor block. However, the addition of intrathecal fentanyl was associated with higher incidence of intraoperative pruritus (relative risk, 5.89; 95% CI, 2.07-16.79; number needed to harm, 13.5). The inclusion of fentanyl to intrathecal bupivacaine-morphine compared to intrathecal bupivacaine-morphine alone conferred a similar benefit, with a significantly reduced need for intraoperative supplemental analgesia (relative risk, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-0.95; number needed to treat, 9). Analysis using a funnel plot indicated a possibility of publication bias in included studies. CONCLUSIONS:Current evidence suggests a benefit of using fentanyl as both an additive to intrathecal bupivacaine alone and to intrathecal bupivacaine combined with morphine for cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. The possibility of publication bias, small sample size, and high risk of bias in some of the included studies warrant treating the results with caution.

关键词: 暂无
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影响因子:2.27
发表时间:2020-05-01
DOI:10.1213/ANE.0000000000004012
作者列表:["Jean YK","Kam D","Gayer S","Palte HD","Stein ALS"]

METHODS::Ophthalmic pediatric regional anesthesia has been widely described, but infrequently used. This review summarizes the available evidence supporting the use of conduction anesthesia in pediatric ophthalmic surgery. Key anatomic differences in axial length, intraocular pressure, and available orbital space between young children and adults impact conduct of ophthalmic regional anesthesia. The eye is near adult size at birth and completes its growth rapidly while the orbit does not. This results in significantly diminished extraocular orbital volumes for local anesthetic deposition. Needle-based blocks are categorized by relation of the needle to the extraocular muscle cone (ie, intraconal or extraconal) and in the cannula-based block, by description of the potential space deep to the Tenon capsule. In children, blocks are placed after induction of anesthesia by a pediatric anesthesiologist or ophthalmologist, via anatomic landmarks or under ultrasonography. Ocular conduction anesthesia confers several advantages for eye surgery including analgesia, akinesia, ablation of the oculocardiac reflex, and reduction of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Short (16 mm), blunt-tip needles are preferred because of altered globe-to-orbit ratios in children. Soft-tip cannulae of varying length have been demonstrated as safe in sub-Tenon blockade. Ultrasound technology facilitates direct, real-time visualization of needle position and local anesthetic spread and reduces inadvertent intraconal needle placement. The developing eye is vulnerable to thermal and mechanical insults, so ocular-rated transducers are mandated. The adjuvant hyaluronidase improves ocular akinesia, decreases local anesthetic dosage requirements, and improves initial block success; meanwhile, dexmedetomidine increases local anesthetic potency and prolongs duration of analgesia without an increase in adverse events. Intraconal blockade is a relative contraindication in neonates and infants, retinoblastoma surgery, and in the presence of posterior staphylomas and buphthalmos. Specific considerations include pertinent pediatric ophthalmologic topics, block placement in the syndromic child, and potential adverse effects associated with each technique. Recommendations based on our experience at a busy academic ophthalmologic tertiary referral center are provided.

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