An exploratory randomized sub-study of light-to-moderate intensity exercise on cognitive function, depression symptoms and inflammation in older adults with heart failure.
- 作者列表："Redwine LS","Pung MA","Wilson K","Bangen KJ","Delano-Wood L","Hurwitz B
OBJECTIVE:Almost half of patients with heart failure (HF) have cognitive impairment. While exercise relates to better cognitive health, a hallmark of HF is exercise intolerance. The study objective was to explore whether light-to-moderate exercise improves cognitive function in patients with HF. METHODS:This was an exploratory parallel design study of 69 patients with symptomatic HF (mean age = 65, SD = 10), recruited from VA and University of California, San Diego Healthcare Systems. Participants were randomized to Tai Chi (TC) (n = 24), resistance band (RB) exercise (n = 22) or treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 23). The primary outcome was change in Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. We further explored if changes in Beck Depression Inventory - IA (BDI-IA) scores or inflammation biomarkers, CRP, TNFα and IL-6 related to altered cognitive function. RESULTS:There was a fixed effect of group for MoCA scores changes (F = 8.07, p = .001). TC and RB groups had greater MoCA score increases versus TAU, but no differences were found between TC and RB. Depression symptom changes predicted altered MoCA scores (ΔR2 = 0.15, Β = -0.413, p = .001). However, group did not interact with depression symptom levels for MoCA alterations (p = .392). Changes in CRP levels predicted MoCA scores (ΔR2 = 0.078, Β = -0.283, p = .01), but group did not interact with CRP levels for MoCA alterations (p = .689). CONCLUSIONS:Light-to-moderate exercises, TC and RB may improve cognitive function. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01625819.
目的: 几乎一半的心力衰竭 (HF) 患者存在认知功能障碍。虽然运动涉及更好的认知健康，但HF的标志是运动不耐受。该研究的目的是探讨轻中度运动是否能改善心力衰竭患者的认知功能。 方法: 这是一项探索性平行设计研究，纳入了69例有症状的HF患者 (平均年龄 = 65岁，SD = 10)，他们从VA和加州大学圣地亚哥分校医疗保健系统招募。参与者被随机分配到太极 (TC) (n = 24)，阻力带 (RB) 锻炼 (n = 22) 或照常治疗 (TAU) (n = 23)。主要结局是蒙特利尔认知评估 (MoCA) 评分的变化。我们进一步探讨贝克抑郁量表-IA (bdi-ia) 评分或炎症生物标志物、CRP、tnf α 和IL-6的变化是否与认知功能改变有关。 结果: 组间MoCA评分变化有固定效应 (F = 8.07，p = .001)。与TAU相比，TC和RB组的MoCA评分增加更大，但在TC和RB之间没有发现差异。抑郁症状变化预测MoCA评分改变 (r2 r2 = 0.15，Β = -0.413，p = .001)。然而，对于MoCA改变，组不与抑郁症状水平相互作用 (p = .392)。CRP水平的变化预测MoCA评分 (Δ r2 = 0.078，Β = -0.283，p = .01)，但组间MoCA改变不与CRP水平相互作用 (p = .689)。 结论: 轻中度运动、TC和RB可改善认知功能。然而，机制仍不清楚。ClinicalTrials.gov: nct01625819。
METHODS::Aim: Heart failure is a serious complication of acute myocardial infarction leading to poor prognosis. We aimed at exploring time trends of heart failure and their impact on mortality among patients with an incident acute myocardial infarction. Methods: From the National Patient Danish Registry we collected data on all patients hospitalized with an incident of acute myocardial infarction during 2000-2009 and identified cases with in-hospital heart failure (presented on admission or developing heart failure during acute myocardial infarction hospitalization) or post-discharge heart failure (a hospitalization or outpatient visit following acute myocardial infarction discharge), and assessed in-hospital, 30-day and 1-year mortality. Results: Of the 78,814 patients included in the study, 10,248 (13.0%) developed in-hospital heart failure. The odds of in-hospital heart failure declined 0.9% per year (odds ratio=0.991, 95% confidence interval: 0.983-0.999). In-hospital heart failure was associated with 13% (odds ratio=1.13, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.20) and 14% (odds ratio=1.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.20) higher in-hospital and 30-day mortality, respectively. Of the 61,637 patients discharged alive without in-hospital heart failure, 5978 (9.7%) experienced post-discharge heart failure, 4116 (6.7%) were hospitalized and 1862 (3.0%) were diagnosed at outpatient clinics. The risk of heart failure requiring hospitalization declined 5.5% per year (hazard ratio=0.945, 95% confidence interval: 0.934-0.955) whereas the risk of heart failure diagnosed at outpatient clinics increased 13.4% per year (hazard ratio=1.134, 95% confidence interval: 1.115-1.153). Post-discharge heart failure was associated with 239% (hazard ratio=3.39, 95% confidence interval: 3.18-3.63) higher 1-year mortality. Conclusions: In-hospital and post-discharge heart failure requiring hospitalization decreased whereas post-discharge heart failure diagnosed at outpatient clinics increased among incident acute myocardial infarction patients during 2000-2009. The development of heart failure, especially after acute myocardial infarction discharge, indicates a poor prognosis.
METHODS::The number of patients with heart failure (HF) is rapidly increasing. Although hypertension is related to onset of HF, antihypertensive treatment status for these patients has not been fully examined. We conducted a claims-based study to discern the treatment status of Japanese hypertensive patients with HF. Two Japanese databases (2008-2016) from acute care hospitals and health insurance societies were used to analyze prescription rates for antihypertensive drug class or category of diuretics in all hypertensive patients and the subset of patients with HF. Totals of hypertensive patients and those with HF in each database in 2015 were 4,191,666 and 1,404,008 patient-months, and 1,382,732 and 148,194 patient-months, respectively. In the acute care hospitals database, calcium channel blockers (CCBs) (55.0-56.5%) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (49.4-54.7%) were prescribed most. β-blockers (38.7-48.0%) and diuretics (42.3-45.6%) were prescribed more for hypertensive patients with HF than for all hypertensive patients (21.5-24.8% and 25.5-26.7%, respectively). Loop diuretics were also prescribed more often for hypertensive patients with HF (68.3-76.0% from acute care hospitals and 47.8-55.8% from health insurance societies) than for all hypertensive patients (56.7-61.7% and 16.4-18.3%). The size of medical institution had a greater effect on drug selection than patient age in both patient groups. Given recommendations in guidelines for hypertensive patients with HF, the differences in drug choice in comparison with all hypertensive patients appear reasonable. However, some deviations, such as the high rate of CCBs in frontline and preference for angiotensin II receptor blockers over angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, did not appear to follow guidelines.
METHODS::The management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) essentially consists in controlling hyperglycaemia, together with other vascular risk factors, in order to reduce the incidence and severity of diabetic complications. Whereas glucose control using classical glucose-lowering agents (except perhaps metformin) largely fails to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD), two new pharmacological classes, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is), have proven their ability to reduce major cardiovascular events in patients with established CVD. Furthermore, SGLT2is reduced the risk of hospitalisation for heart failure and the progression of renal disease. According to the 2018 ADA-EASD consensus report, the choice of a second agent to be added to metformin should now be driven by the presence or not of atherosclerotic CVD, heart failure or renal disease, all conditions that should promote the use of a SGLT2i or a GLP-1 RA with proven efficacy. Thus endocrinologists have to face a new paradigm in the management of T2DM, with a shift from a primary objective of glucose control without inducing hypoglycaemia and weight gain to a goal of cardiovascular and renal protection, largely independent of glucose control. Of note, however, the latter remains crucial to reduce the risk of microangiopathy.