- 作者列表："Mariani S","Hanke JS","Dogan G","Schmitto JD
:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic touching thousands of people all around the world. Patients supported with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are affected by long-standing cardiovascular diseases and subjected to variations of the normal cardiovascular physiology, thus requiring an even closer monitoring during the COVID-19 outbreak. Nevertheless, the COVID-19 pandemic led to a drastic reduction in routine clinical activities and a consequent risk of looser connections between LVAD patients and their referring center. Potential deleterious effects of such a situation can be a delayed recognition of LVAD-related complications, misdiagnosis of COVID-19, and impaired social and psychological well-being for patients and families. As one of the largest LVAD programs worldwide, we designed a sustainable and enforceable telemonitoring algorithm which can be easily adapted to every LVAD center so as to maintain optimal quality of care for LVAD patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.
: 冠状病毒疾病2019 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 是一场影响全球数千人的流行病。左心室辅助装置 (lvad) 支持的患者受到长期心血管疾病的影响，并受到正常心血管生理的变化，因此需要在新型冠状病毒肺炎爆发期间进行更密切的监测。然而，新型冠状病毒肺炎大流行导致常规临床活动的急剧减少，从而导致LVAD患者与其转诊中心之间的联系松动的风险。这种情况的潜在有害影响可能是LVAD相关并发症的延迟识别、新型冠状病毒肺炎的误诊以及患者和家庭的社会和心理健康受损。作为全球最大的LVAD项目之一，我们设计了一个可持续且可实施的远程监护算法，该算法可以很容易地适应每个LVAD中心，以便在新型冠状病毒肺炎大流行期间保持LVAD患者的最佳护理质量。
METHODS::Aim: Heart failure is a serious complication of acute myocardial infarction leading to poor prognosis. We aimed at exploring time trends of heart failure and their impact on mortality among patients with an incident acute myocardial infarction. Methods: From the National Patient Danish Registry we collected data on all patients hospitalized with an incident of acute myocardial infarction during 2000-2009 and identified cases with in-hospital heart failure (presented on admission or developing heart failure during acute myocardial infarction hospitalization) or post-discharge heart failure (a hospitalization or outpatient visit following acute myocardial infarction discharge), and assessed in-hospital, 30-day and 1-year mortality. Results: Of the 78,814 patients included in the study, 10,248 (13.0%) developed in-hospital heart failure. The odds of in-hospital heart failure declined 0.9% per year (odds ratio=0.991, 95% confidence interval: 0.983-0.999). In-hospital heart failure was associated with 13% (odds ratio=1.13, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.20) and 14% (odds ratio=1.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.20) higher in-hospital and 30-day mortality, respectively. Of the 61,637 patients discharged alive without in-hospital heart failure, 5978 (9.7%) experienced post-discharge heart failure, 4116 (6.7%) were hospitalized and 1862 (3.0%) were diagnosed at outpatient clinics. The risk of heart failure requiring hospitalization declined 5.5% per year (hazard ratio=0.945, 95% confidence interval: 0.934-0.955) whereas the risk of heart failure diagnosed at outpatient clinics increased 13.4% per year (hazard ratio=1.134, 95% confidence interval: 1.115-1.153). Post-discharge heart failure was associated with 239% (hazard ratio=3.39, 95% confidence interval: 3.18-3.63) higher 1-year mortality. Conclusions: In-hospital and post-discharge heart failure requiring hospitalization decreased whereas post-discharge heart failure diagnosed at outpatient clinics increased among incident acute myocardial infarction patients during 2000-2009. The development of heart failure, especially after acute myocardial infarction discharge, indicates a poor prognosis.
METHODS::The number of patients with heart failure (HF) is rapidly increasing. Although hypertension is related to onset of HF, antihypertensive treatment status for these patients has not been fully examined. We conducted a claims-based study to discern the treatment status of Japanese hypertensive patients with HF. Two Japanese databases (2008-2016) from acute care hospitals and health insurance societies were used to analyze prescription rates for antihypertensive drug class or category of diuretics in all hypertensive patients and the subset of patients with HF. Totals of hypertensive patients and those with HF in each database in 2015 were 4,191,666 and 1,404,008 patient-months, and 1,382,732 and 148,194 patient-months, respectively. In the acute care hospitals database, calcium channel blockers (CCBs) (55.0-56.5%) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (49.4-54.7%) were prescribed most. β-blockers (38.7-48.0%) and diuretics (42.3-45.6%) were prescribed more for hypertensive patients with HF than for all hypertensive patients (21.5-24.8% and 25.5-26.7%, respectively). Loop diuretics were also prescribed more often for hypertensive patients with HF (68.3-76.0% from acute care hospitals and 47.8-55.8% from health insurance societies) than for all hypertensive patients (56.7-61.7% and 16.4-18.3%). The size of medical institution had a greater effect on drug selection than patient age in both patient groups. Given recommendations in guidelines for hypertensive patients with HF, the differences in drug choice in comparison with all hypertensive patients appear reasonable. However, some deviations, such as the high rate of CCBs in frontline and preference for angiotensin II receptor blockers over angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, did not appear to follow guidelines.
METHODS::The management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) essentially consists in controlling hyperglycaemia, together with other vascular risk factors, in order to reduce the incidence and severity of diabetic complications. Whereas glucose control using classical glucose-lowering agents (except perhaps metformin) largely fails to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD), two new pharmacological classes, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is), have proven their ability to reduce major cardiovascular events in patients with established CVD. Furthermore, SGLT2is reduced the risk of hospitalisation for heart failure and the progression of renal disease. According to the 2018 ADA-EASD consensus report, the choice of a second agent to be added to metformin should now be driven by the presence or not of atherosclerotic CVD, heart failure or renal disease, all conditions that should promote the use of a SGLT2i or a GLP-1 RA with proven efficacy. Thus endocrinologists have to face a new paradigm in the management of T2DM, with a shift from a primary objective of glucose control without inducing hypoglycaemia and weight gain to a goal of cardiovascular and renal protection, largely independent of glucose control. Of note, however, the latter remains crucial to reduce the risk of microangiopathy.