Beneficial effect of fluid warming in elderly patients with bladder cancer undergoing Da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy.
- 作者列表："Luo J","Zhou L","Lin S","Yan W","Huang L","Liang S
OBJECTIVES:The enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol recommends prevention of intraoperative hypothermia. However, the beneficial effect of maintaining normothermia after radical cystectomy has not been evaluated. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of fluid warming nursing in elderly patients undergoing Da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy. METHODS:A total of 108 patients with bladder cancer scheduled to undergo DaVinci robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy were recruited and randomly divided into the control group (n=55), which received a warming blanket (43°C) during the intraoperative period and the warming group (n=53), in which all intraoperative fluids were administered via a fluid warmer (41°C). The surgical data, body temperature, coagulation function indexes, and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. RESULTS:Compared to the control group, the warming group had significantly less intraoperative transfusion (p=0.028) and shorter hospitalization days (p<0.05). During the entire intraoperative period (from 1 to 6h), body temperature was significantly higher in the warming group than in the control group. There were significant differences in preoperative fibrinogen level, white blood cell count, total bilirubin level, intraoperative lactose level, postoperative thrombin time (TT), and platelet count between the control and warming groups. Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that TT was the only significant factor, suggesting that the warming group had a lower TT than the control group. CONCLUSION:Fluid warming nursing can effectively reduce transfusion requirement and hospitalization days, maintain intraoperative normothermia, and promote postoperative coagulation function in elderly patients undergoing Da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy.
目的: 加速康复外科 (ERAS) 方案推荐预防术中低体温。然而，尚未评估根治性膀胱切除术后维持常温的有益效果。本研究旨在探讨液体加温护理在达芬奇机器人辅助腹腔镜根治性膀胱切除术老年患者中的应用效果。 方法: 将108例拟行达芬奇机器人辅助腹腔镜根治性膀胱切除术的膀胱癌患者随机分为对照组 (n = 55) 和观察组 (n = 53)，对照组术中使用加温毯 (43 ℃)。其中所有术中液体均通过液体加热器 (41 °C) 给药。比较两组患者的手术资料、体温、凝血功能指标及术后并发症发生情况。 结果: 与对照组相比，加温组术中输血量明显减少 (p = 0.028)，住院天数明显缩短 (p<0.05)。在整个术中期间 (从1到6小时)，体温在加温组明显高于对照组。对照组与加温组术前纤维蛋白原水平、白细胞计数、总胆红素水平、术中乳糖水平、术后凝血酶时间 (TT) 、血小板计数差异有统计学意义。多元线性回归分析表明，TT是唯一显著的因素，表明升温组的TT低于对照组。 结论: 液体加温护理可有效减少达芬奇机器人辅助腹腔镜根治性膀胱切除术老年患者的输液需求和住院天数，维持术中常温，促进术后凝血功能。
METHODS:PURPOSE:Studies indicate that molecular subtypes in muscle invasive bladder cancer predict the clinical outcome. We evaluated whether subtyping by a simplified method and established classifications could predict the clinical outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We subtyped institutional cohort 1 of 52 patients, including 39 with muscle invasive bladder cancer, an Oncomine™ data set of 151 with muscle invasive bladder cancer and TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) data set of 402 with muscle invasive bladder cancer. Subtyping was done using simplified panels (MCG-1 and MCG-Ext) which included only transcripts common in published studies and were analyzed for predicting metastasis, and cancer specific, overall and recurrence-free survival. TCGA data set was further analyzed using the Lund taxonomy, the Bladder Cancer Molecular Taxonomy Group Consensus and TCGA 2017 mRNA subtype classifications. RESULTS:Muscle invasive bladder cancer specimens from cohort 1 and the Oncomine data set showed intratumor heterogeneity for transcript and protein expression. MCG-1 subtypes did not predict the outcome on univariate or Kaplan-Meier analysis. On multivariate analysis N stage (p ≤0.007), T stage (p ≤0.04), M stage (p=0.007) and/or patient age (p=0.01) predicted metastasis, cancer specific and overall survival, and/or the cisplatin based adjuvant chemotherapy response. In TCGA data set publications showed that subtypes risk stratified patients for overall survival. Consistently the MCG-1 and MCG-Ext subtypes were associated with overall but not recurrence-free survival on univariate and Kaplan-Meier analyses. TCGA data set included 21 low grade specimens of the total of 402 and subtypes associated with tumor grade (p=0.005). However, less than 1% of muscle invasive bladder cancer cases are low grade. In only high grade specimens the MCG-1 and MCG-Ext subtypes could not predict overall survival. On univariate analysis subtypes according to the Bladder Cancer Molecular Taxonomy Group Consensus, TCGA 2017 and the Lund taxonomy were associated with tumor grade (p <0.0001) and overall survival (p=0.01 to <0.0001). Regardless of classification, subtypes had about 50% to 60% sensitivity and specificity to predict overall and recurrence-free survival. On multivariate analyses N stage and lymphovascular invasion consistently predicted recurrence-free and overall survival (p=0.039 and 0.003, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Molecular subtypes reflect bladder tumor heterogeneity and are associated with tumor grade. In multiple cohorts and subtyping classifications the clinical parameters outperformed subtypes for predicting the outcome.
METHODS::Acquired chemoresistance is a critical issue for advanced bladder cancer patients during long-term treatment. Recent studies reveal that a fraction of tumor cells with enhanced tumor-initiating potential, or cancer stem-like cells (CSCs), may particularly contribute to acquired chemoresistance and recurrence. Thus, CSC characterization will be the first step towards understanding the mechanisms underlying advanced disease. Here we generated long-term patient-derived cancer cells (PDCs) from bladder cancer patient specimens in spheroid culture, which is favorable for CSC enrichment. Pathological features of bladder cancer PDCs and PDC-dependent patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) were basically similar to those of their corresponding patients' specimens. Notably, CSC marker aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), a critical enzyme that synthesizes retinoic acid (RA), was abundantly expressed in PDCs. ALDH1A1 inhibitors and shRNAs repressed both PDC proliferation and spheroid formation, whereas all-trans RA could rescue ALDH1A1 shRNA-suppressed spheroid formation. ALDH inhibitor also reduced the in vivo growth of PDC-derived xenografts. ALDH1A1 knockdown study showed that tubulin beta III (TUBB3) was one of the downregulated genes in PDCs. We identified functional RA response elements in TUBB3 promoter, whose transcriptional activities were substantially activated by RA. Clinical survival database reveals that TUBB3 expression may associate with poor prognosis in bladder cancer patients. Moreover, TUBB3 knockdown was sufficient to suppress PDC proliferation and spheroid formation. Taken together, our results indicate that ALDH1A1 and its putative downstream target TUBB3 are overexpressed in bladder cancer, and those molecules could be applied to alternative diagnostic and therapeutic options for advanced disease.
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the technical feasibility, oncological and functional outcomes of nerve sparing cystoprostatectomy (NSCP) and prostate capsule-sparing cystectomy (PCSC) for the treatment of organ-confined bladder cancer at a single referral centre. PATIENTS AND METHODS:From April 2001 to June 2012, 60 patients underwent PCSC and 47 were treated with NSCP. Inclusion criteria for PCSC were: fully informed consent for the well-motivated patient; negative transurethral resection of the bladder neck; normal prostatic specific antigen (PSA) level (defined as <4 ng/dL during the first year of the study, which was later lowered to 2.5 ng/dL); and normal transrectal ultrasonography, with biopsy for any suspicious nodule. Patients received a complete oncological and functional follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to depict survival outcomes after surgery. RESULTS:After a median follow-up of 73 and 62 months for PCSC and NSCP, respectively, the 5-year cancer-specific survival was 90% for the PCSC group and 78% for the NSCP group (P = 0.055). Considering complications within 30 days after surgery, 13% and 21% patients had Clavien ≥III complications in the PCSC and NSCP groups, respectively (P = 0.2). For functional outcomes, at 3 months after surgery, 54 (90%) and 24 (51%) patients reported full recovery of daytime urinary continence in the PCSC and NSCP groups, respectively (P < 0.001); and for erectile function recovery, 32 (53%) and four (9%) patients in the PCSC group and in the NSCP group were respectively potent without any treatment (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:NSCP and PCSC are appropriate for a subset of patients with bladder cancer, with excellent oncological and functional results. These surgical procedures should be proposed to well-motivated patients.