Pre-transplant assessment of pp65-specific CD4 T cell responses identifies CMV-seropositive patients treated with rATG at risk of late onset infection.
pp65-specific CD4 + T细胞应答的移植前评估鉴定了用rATG治疗的CMV血清阳性患者具有迟发性感染的风险。
- 作者列表："López-Oliva MO","Martínez V","Rodríguez-Sanz A","Álvarez L","Santana MJ","Selgas R","Jiménez C","Bellón T
:Assessment of CMV-specific T cell immunity might be a useful tool in predicting CMV infection after solid organ transplantation. We have investigated CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses to CMV pp65 and IE-1 antigens in a prospective study of 28 CMV-seropositive kidney transplant recipients who were administered lymphocyte-depleting antibodies (Thymoglobulin®) as induction treatment and with universal prophylaxis for CMV infection. The response was analyzed by intracellular flow cytometry analysis of IFN-γ production in pretransplant samples and at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months post-transplant. Overall, only pretransplant CD4 T-cell responses to pp65 were significantly lower (p = .004) in patients with CMV replication post-transplant. ROC curve analysis showed that pre-transplant frequencies of pp65-specific CD4 + T cells below 0.10% could predict CMV infection with 75% sensitivity and 83.33% specificity (AUC: 0.847; 95% CI: 0.693-1.001; p = .0054) and seem to be mandatory for efficient control of CMV viral replication by the host immune system. In conclusion, the functional assessment of CMV-specific CD4 T-cell immunity pretransplant in seropositive patients may allow the identification of Thymoglobulin®-treated kidney transplant recipients at risk of developing CMV infection post-transplantation.
: 评估CMV特异性T细胞免疫可能是预测实体器官移植后CMV感染的有用工具。我们研究了CD4和CD8 T细胞对CMV pp65和IE-1抗原的反应，对28例CMV血清阳性肾移植受者进行了一项前瞻性研究，这些受者接受了淋巴细胞消耗抗体 (胸腺球蛋白®) 作为CMV感染的诱导治疗和普遍预防。通过细胞内流式细胞术分析移植前样品和移植后1、6、12和24个月时IFN-γ 产生的反应。总体而言，只有移植前cd4t细胞对pp65的反应在移植后具有CMV复制的患者中显著较低 (p =.004)。ROC曲线分析显示，pp65-specific CD4 + t细胞移植前频率低于0.10% 可预测CMV感染，灵敏度为75%，特异度为83.33% (AUC: 0.847; 95% CI: 0.693-1.001; P =.0054) 并且似乎是通过宿主免疫系统有效控制CMV病毒复制的强制性要求。总之，血清阳性患者移植前CMV特异性CD4 T细胞免疫的功能评估可能允许鉴定胸腺球蛋白®-接受治疗的肾移植受者在移植后有发生CMV感染的风险。
METHODS::Veterinary educators use models to allow repetitive practice of surgical skills leading to clinical competence. Canine castration is a commonly performed procedure that is considered a Day One competency for a veterinarian. In this study, we sought to create and evaluate a canine pre-scrotal closed castration model and grading rubric using a validation framework of content evidence, internal structure evidence, and relationship with other variables. Veterinarians (n = 8) and students (n = 32) were recorded while they performed a castration on the model and provided survey feedback. A subset of the students (n = 7) then performed a live canine castration, and their scores were compared with their model scores. One hundred percent of the veterinarians and 91% of the students reported that the model was helpful in training for canine castration. They highlighted several areas for continued improvement. Veterinarians' model performance scores were significantly higher than students', indicating that the model had adequate features to differentiate expert from novice performance. Students' performance on the model strongly correlated with their performance of live castration (r = .82). Surgical time was also strongly correlated (r = .70). The internal consistency of model and live rubric scores were good at .85 and .94, respectively. The framework supported validation of the model and rubric. The canine castration model facilitated cost-efficient practice in a safe environment in which students received instructor feedback and learned through experience without the risk of negatively affecting a patient's well-being. The strong correlation between model and live animal performance scores suggests that the model could be useful for mastery learning.
METHODS:PURPOSE:To investigate whether hexaminolevulinate-based (HAL) bladder tumor resection (TURBT) impacts on outcomes of patients with primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) who were eventually treated with radical cystectomy (RC). METHODS:A total of 131 consecutive patients exhibiting NMIBC at primary diagnosis were retrospectively investigated whether they had undergone any HAL-guided TURBT prior to RC. Uni- and multivariable analyses were used to evaluate the impact of HAL-TURBT on cancer-specific (CSS) and overall survival (OS). The median follow-up was 38 months (IQR 13-56). RESULTS:Of the 131 patients, 69 (52.7%) were managed with HAL- and 62 (47.3%) with white light (WL)-TURBT only prior to RC. HAL-TURBT was associated with a higher number of TURBTs prior to RC (p = 0.002) and administration of intravesical chemotherapy (p = 0.043). A trend towards a higher rate of tumor-associated immune cell infiltrates in RC specimens (p = 0.07) and a lower utilization rate of post-operative systemic chemotherapy (p = 0.10) was noted for patients who were treated with HAL-TURBT. The 5-year CSS/OS was 90.9%/74.5% for the HAL-group and 73.8%/55.8% for the WL-group (p = 0.042/0.038). In multivariable analysis, lymph node tumor involvement (p = 0.007), positive surgical margins (p = 0.001) and performance of WL-TURBT only (p = 0.040) were independent predictors for cancer-specific death. CONCLUSIONS:The present data suggest that the resection of NMIBC under HAL exerts a beneficial impact on outcomes of patients who will need to undergo RC during their course of disease. This finding may be due to improved risk stratification as the resection under HAL may allow more patients to be treated timely and adequately.
METHODS:PURPOSE:To investigate the incidence of inguinal hernia following radical prostatectomy we compared the incidence after open retropubic radical prostatectomy with the incidence after the laparoscopic and robot-assisted radical prostatectomies, and using control groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We included all original articles on studies providing data on inguinal hernia incidence in patients treated with radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. PubMed® and EMBASE® were searched on February 28, 2018. A meta-analysis was done as a weighted and pooled estimate of the incidence of inguinal hernia. The bias risk was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cohort studies and the Cochrane Collaboration tool for randomized clinical trials. RESULTS:We included 54 studies with a total of 101,687 patients. The estimated incidence of inguinal hernia was 13.7% (95% CI 12.0-15.4) after open retropubic radical prostatectomy, 7.5% (95% CI 5.2-9.8) after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and 7.9% (95% CI 5.0-10.9) after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. In studies comparing the incidence of inguinal hernia after open prostatectomy vs no treatment the incidence was significantly higher in the radical prostatectomy group (11.7%, 95% CI 9.2-14.2 vs 3.3%, 95% CI 2.0-4.6). Two of 3 studies showed a significantly higher incidence after laparoscopic and robot-assisted radical prostatectomies compared with a control group. Most studies of intraoperative inguinal hernia prevention techniques demonstrated a significantly lower inguinal hernia incidence in the experimental group. Inguinal hernias that developed after radical prostatectomy were primarily indirect (81.9%, 95% CI 75.3-88.4). CONCLUSIONS:We found a high incidence of inguinal hernia following radical prostatectomy and hernias were primarily of the indirect type. The highest incidence of inguinal hernia was noted after open radical prostatectomy, followed by laparoscopic and robot-assisted radical prostatectomies. There was no significant difference between the laparoscopic and robot-assisted groups. The incidence of inguinal hernia was significantly higher after open radical prostatectomy than in control groups with some evidence to support the same finding for the laparoscopic and robot-assisted approaches. Promising results have been reported in studies of intraoperative prophylactic surgical techniques to reduce the postoperative incidence of inguinal hernia.