- 作者列表："Hippensteel JA","LaRiviere WB","Colbert JF","Langouët-Astrié CJ","Schmidt EP
:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the clinical syndrome associated with infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has impacted nearly every country in the world. Despite an unprecedented focus of scientific investigation, there is a paucity of evidence-based pharmacotherapies against this disease. Because of this lack of data-driven treatment strategies, broad variations in practice patterns have emerged. Observed hypercoagulability in patients with COVID-19 has created debate within the critical care community on the therapeutic utility of heparin. We seek to provide an overview of the data supporting the therapeutic use of heparin, both unfractionated and low molecular weight, as an anticoagulant for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally, we review preclinical evidence establishing biological plausibility for heparin and synthetic heparin-like drugs as therapies for COVID-19 through antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, we discuss known adverse effects and theoretical off-target effects that may temper enthusiasm for the adoption of heparin as a therapy in COVID-19 without confirmatory prospective randomized controlled trials. Despite previous failures of anticoagulants in critical illness, plausibility of heparin for COVID-19 is sufficiently robust to justify urgent randomized controlled trials to determine the safety and effectiveness of this therapy.
: 冠状病毒疾病2019 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 是与新型冠状病毒冠状病毒2 (SARS-CoV-2) 感染相关的临床综合征，几乎影响了世界上每个国家。尽管科学研究的焦点前所未有，但针对这种疾病的循证药物治疗却很少。由于缺乏数据驱动的治疗策略，实践模式出现了广泛的差异。在新型冠状病毒肺炎患者中观察到的高凝状态在重症监护社区内引起了关于肝素治疗效用的争论。我们试图提供支持肝素 (包括普通肝素和低分子量肝素) 作为抗凝剂治疗SARS-CoV-2感染的数据概述。此外，我们回顾了通过抗病毒和抗炎作用建立肝素和合成肝素样药物作为新型冠状病毒肺炎治疗的生物学合理性的临床前证据。最后，我们讨论了已知的不良反应和理论脱靶效应，这些效应可能会降低新型冠状病毒肺炎采用肝素作为治疗的热情，但没有验证性前瞻性随机对照试验。尽管以前在危重病中使用抗凝剂失败，但新型冠状病毒肺炎肝素的合理性足以证明紧急随机对照试验是合理的，以确定该疗法的安全性和有效性。
METHODS::Vancomycin (VCM) has been reported to elicit adverse cutaneous drug reactions. However, VCM-associated purpuric drug eruption has not been reported yet, except leukocytoclastic vasculitis. A 16-year-old Japanese girl was admitted with a respiratory infection. We initiated intravenous administration of VCM. After the start of treatment, impalpable purpuric eruption appeared on her trunk. The eruption gradually extended to her neck, legs, and arms. Skin biopsy showed vasculitis with lymphocyte infiltration in the superficial dermis. A drug lymphocyte stimulation test yielded positive results for VCM. Her cutaneous symptoms rapidly reversed after the withdrawal of VCM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of VCM-associated purpuric drug eruption, which differs from leukocytoclastic vasculitis. We recommend that VCM-associated purpuric drug eruption should be considered in the differential diagnosis during the administration of VCM, and a drug lymphocyte stimulation test may be useful for assessment of pathogenesis.
METHODS::The cardinal biological role of vitamin K is to act as cofactor for the carboxylation of a number of vitamin K-dependent proteins, some of which are essential for coagulation, bone formation and prevention of vascular calcification. Functional vitamin K deficiency is common and severe among dialysis patients and has garnered attention as a modifiable risk factor in this population. However, no single biochemical parameter can adequately assess vitamin K status. For each biological function of vitamin K, the degree of carboxylation of the relevant vitamin K-dependent protein most accurately reflects vitamin K status. Dephosphorylated uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP) is the best biomarker for vascular vitamin K status when cardiovascular endpoints are studied. Dp-ucMGP levels are severely elevated in haemodialysis patients and correlate with markers of vascular calcification and mortality in some but not all studies. The aetiology of vitamin K deficiency in haemodialysis is multifactorial, including deficient intake, uraemic inhibition of the vitamin K cycle and possibly interference of vitamin K absorption by phosphate binders. The optimal vitamin K species, dose and duration of supplementation to correct vitamin K status in dialysis patients are unknown. Dp-ucMGP levels dose-proportionally decrease with supraphysiological vitamin K2 supplementation, but do not normalize even with the highest doses. In the general population, long-term vitamin K1 or K2 supplementation has beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease, bone density and fracture risk, and insulin resistance, although some studies reported negative results. In haemodialysis patients, several trials on the effects of vitamin K on surrogate markers of vascular calcification are currently ongoing.
METHODS::Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disease with a mild to severe risk of bleeding complications. First line treatment includes corticosteroids, immunoglobulins, or other. In this large cohort study, first-line strategies for treatment-naive adult primary ITP was studied in a real-world setting. Records from all adult ITP patients who received first-line treatment between January 2010 and December 2017 at Qilu Hospital were reviewed retrospectively (n = 699). During the study period, 271 patients were treated with high-dose dexamethasone (HDD) and 289 patients were treated with conventional prednisone (alone or in combination with other drugs). Initial responses were similar for the two groups (88.56% vs. 86.51%, P = 0.462), but patients in the HDD group responded earlier than the prednisone group (3 days vs. 5 days, P < 0.001). The sustained response (SR) at 6 months was lower in the HDD group than in the prednisone group (35.4% vs. 47.1%, P = 0.040). However, the SR at 12 months and at the end of our follow-up were not significantly different between the groups. Overall duration of response (DOR) in the prednisone group was longer than in the HDD group throughout the follow-up period (P = 0.007). However, the incidence of SR and overall DOR were not significantly different between the HDD group and the prednisone 3 months group (prednisone terminated within 3 months). The presence of anti-GPIb-IX autoantibodies was a predictive factor for a poor initial response to corticosteroids therapy (P < 0.05). However, neither of the two antiplatelet autoantibodies were correlated with the opportunity to achieve SR and overall DOR in both groups throughout the follow-up period (P > 0.05). Adverse events were more frequent and long-lasting in the prednisone group. Our study showed that HDD provided an effective and more rapid response as initial treatment of ITP, with comparable long-term prognosis and better tolerance when compared with conventional PDN (less than 3 months) in the real-world setting.