- 作者列表："Reichling C","Nobile L","Pezzullo M","Navez J","Bachir N","D'Haene N","Maris C","Musala C","Fernandez Y Viesca M","Grimaldi D","Delhaye M
BACKGROUND:Vascular complications of severe acute pancreatitis are well known and largely described unlike non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia, which is a rare and potentially fatal complication. Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia is an acute mesenteric ischemia without thrombotic occlusion of blood vessels, poorly described as a complication of acute pancreatitis. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed a prospectively maintained registry of all pancreatic diseases referred to our center from 2013 to 2018, in order to determine the causes of early death. We identified three patients who died within 48 h after hospital admission from severe acute pancreatitis complicated by irreversible non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia. Their clinical presentation, management, and outcomes were herein reported. RESULTS:Three consecutive patients with severe acute pancreatitis developed non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia within the first 5 days after onset of symptoms and died 48 h after non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia diagnosis despite optimal intensive care management and surgery, giving a prevalence of 3/609 (0.5%). Symptoms were unspecific with consequently potential delayed diagnosis and management. High doses of norepinephrine required for hemodynamic support (n = 3) potentially leading to splanchnic vessels vasoconstriction, transient hypotension (n = 3), and previous severe ischemic cardiomyopathy (n = 1) could be involved as precipitating factors of non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia. CONCLUSION:Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia can be a fatal complication of acute pancreatitis but is also challenging to diagnose. Priority is to reestablish a splanchno-mesenteric perfusion flow. Surgery should be offered in case of treatment failure or deterioration but is still under debate in early stage, to interrupt the vicious circle of intestinal hypoperfusion and ischemia.
背景: 重症急性胰腺炎的血管并发症是众所周知的，并且在很大程度上不同于非闭塞性肠系膜缺血，这是一种罕见且可能致命的并发症。非闭塞性肠系膜缺血是一种急性肠系膜缺血，无血栓形成性血管闭塞，很少描述为急性胰腺炎的并发症。 方法: 为了确定早期死亡的原因，我们回顾性地回顾了2013年至2018年我们中心所有胰腺疾病的前瞻性注册。我们发现3例患者在入院后48小时内死于重症急性胰腺炎并发不可逆非闭塞性肠系膜缺血。本文报告了他们的临床表现、治疗和结果。 结果: 连续3例重症急性胰腺炎患者在症状出现后5天内出现非闭塞性肠系膜缺血，尽管进行了最佳的重症监护和手术，但在非闭塞性肠系膜缺血诊断后48小时死亡，患病率为3/609 (0.5%)。症状无特异性，因此可能延迟诊断和治疗。血液动力学支持所需的高剂量去甲肾上腺素 (n = 3) 可能导致内脏血管血管收缩、一过性低血压 (n = 3) 和既往严重缺血性心肌病 (n = 1) 可能与非闭塞性肠系膜缺血的诱发因素有关。 结论: 非闭塞性肠系膜缺血可能是急性胰腺炎的致命性并发症，但诊断也具有挑战性。优先是重新建立splanchno-肠系膜灌注流。在治疗失败或恶化的情况下应该提供手术，但在早期阶段仍在争论中，以中断肠低灌注和缺血的恶性循环。
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to investigate the key molecular alterations in small primary pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) associated with the development of liver metastases. BACKGROUND:Well-differentiated PanNETs with small size are typically indolent; however, a limited subset metastasize to the liver. METHODS:A total of 87 small primary PanNETs (<3 cm), including 32 metastatic cases and 55 nonmetastatic cases after a 5-year follow-up, were immunolabeled for DAXX/ATRX and analyzed for alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization. A subset of these cases, 24 that metastasized and 24 that did not metastasize, were assessed by targeted next-generation sequencing and whole-genome copy number variation. RESULTS:In the entire cohort, high Ki-67 (OR 1.369; 95% CI 1.121-1.673; P = 0.002), N-stage (OR 4.568; 95% CI 1.458-14.312; P = 0.009), and ALT-positivity (OR 3.486; 95% CI 1.093-11.115; P = 0.035) were independently associated with liver metastases. In the subset assessed by next-generation sequencing and copy number variation analysis, 3 molecular subtypes with differing risks of liver metastases were identified. Group 1 (n = 15; 73% metastasized) was characterized by recurrent chromosomal gains, CN-LOH, DAXX mutations, and ALT-positivity. Group 2 (n = 19; 42% metastasized, including 5 G1 tumors) was characterized by limited copy number alterations and mutations. Group 3 (n = 14; 35% metastasized) were defined by chromosome 11 loss. CONCLUSIONS:We identified genomic patterns of small PanNETs associated with a different risk for liver metastases. Molecular alterations, such as DAXX mutations, chromosomal gains, and ALT, are associated with an increased risk of metastasis in small PanNETs. Therefore, targeted sequencing and/or ALT analysis may help in the clinical decisions for these small PanNETs.
METHODS::Background: This retrospective comparative case series study aims to analyze the pancreatic fistula rates of internal and external stenting of the pancreatojejunostomy (PJ) anastomosis in patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) for periampullary tumors.Methods: Ninety-eight patients with periampullary tumors who were operated between 2010 and 2017 were enrolled in this study. A classic open PD with Roux-en-Y PJ reconstruction was performed in all cases.Results: The PJ anastomosis of 53 patients (54%) were stented internally whereas in 45 patients (46%) external stenting was preferred. Pancreatic fistula was observed in 29 patients (29.6%). Internal stenting and soft pancreatic tissue were found to be related to higher pancreatic fistula rates with odds ratios of 3.27 (p = .024) and 3.4 (p = .017), respectively. When only grade B and grade C fistulas were taken into account, the type of stenting has lost its significance but the texture of the remnant pancreas was still associated with 'clinically important' pancreatic fistula.Conclusions: We concluded that the external stenting of the PJ anastomosis may be considered as an effective approach for reducing postoperative pancreatic leaks in PD-planned patients for periampullary tumors. Although our study was retrospectively designed, we used standard charts to gather patient data and compared two stenting methods among homogeneous patient groups.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Heavily pretreated pancreatic cancer patients have a grave prognosis. In this case series study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of nab-paclitaxel-based chemotherapy for such patients. METHODS:The data of pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients (n = 40) treated with nab-paclitaxel after the failure of gemcitabine or fluoropyrimidines at our institution in 2013-2015 were reviewed. RESULTS:The median number of prior chemotherapy regimens was two (range, 1-6). Eighteen patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of ≥2. The regimens comprised nab-paclitaxel combined with the following drugs: gemcitabine (n = 28), gemcitabine and fluoropyrimidine (n = 3), platinum and fluoropyrimidine (n = 4), fluoropyrimidine (n = 4), and irinotecan and fluoropyrimidine (n = 1). The median dose of nab-paclitaxel was 63 (range, 51-72) mg/m2/dose, with the schedule of D1/15, D1/8, and D1/8/15 followed in 23, 14, and 3 patients, respectively. The median overall survival was 5.1 (95% CI, 4.6-5.7) months. Among 32 evaluable patients, two partial responses and six stable diseases were observed. The median progression-free survival was 2.6 (95% CI, 1.9-3.2) months. Grade 3/4 leucopenia or neutropenia was observed in three and two patients, respectively. Grade 3/4 anemia was observed in four patients. Other significant (grade 3 or more) nonhematological toxicities were not frequent, except for sepsis/infection (n = 7). However, more severe anemia or sepsis/infection was significantly associated with disease control. CONCLUSION:In heavily pretreated pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients, low-dose nab-paclitaxel-based chemotherapy was fairly tolerable with modest efficacy.