- 作者列表："Zhang X","Wang B","Liu Z","Zhou Y","Du L
:hERG (Human ether-a-go-go-related gene) potassium channel, which plays an essential role in cardiac action potential repolarization, is responsible for inherited and druginduced long QT syndrome. Recently, the Cryo-EM structure capturing the open conformation of hERG channel was determined, thus pushing the study on hERG channel at 3.8 Å resolution. This report focuses primarily on summarizing the design rationale and application of several fluorescent probes that target hERG channels, which enables dynamic and real-time monitoring of potassium pore channel affinity to further advance the understanding of the channels.
: hERG (人类乙醚-a-go-相关基因) 钾通道在心脏动作电位复极化中起重要作用，是遗传和药物诱发的长QT综合征的原因。最近，捕获hERG通道开放构象的冷冻-EM结构被确定，从而推动了对hERG通道的研究在3.8 Å 分辨率。本报告主要总结了几种靶向hERG通道的荧光探针的设计原理和应用，这使得能够动态和实时监测钾孔通道亲和力，以进一步推进对通道的理解。
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The current left atrial appendage (LAA) classification system (cLAA-CS) categorizes it into 4 morphologies: chicken wing (CW), windsock, cactus, and cauliflower, though there is limited data on either reliability or associations between different morphologies and stroke risk. We aimed to develop a simplified LAA classification system and to determine its relationship to embolic stroke subtypes. METHODS:Consecutive patients with ischemic stroke from a prospective stroke registry who previously underwent a clinically-indicated chest CT were included. Stroke subtype was determined and LAA morphology was classified using the traditional system (in which CW = low risk) and a new system (LAA-H/L, in which low risk morphology (LAA-L) was defined as an acute angle bend or fold from the proximal/middle portion of the LAA and high risk morphology (LAA-H) was defined as all others). As a proof of concept study, we determined reliability for the two classification systems, and we assessed the associations between both classification systems with stroke subtypes in our cohort and previous studies. RESULTS:We identified 329 ischemic stroke patients with a qualifying chest CT (126 cardioembolic subtype, 116 embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS), and 87 non-cardioembolic subtypes). Intra- and inter-rater agreements improved using the LAA-H/L (0.95 and 0.85, respectively) vs. cLAA-CS (0.50 and 0.40). The LAA-H/L led to classifying 69 LAA morphologies that met criteria for CW as LAA-H. In fully adjusted models, LAA-H was associated with cardioembolic stroke (OR 5.4, 95%CI 2.1-13.7) and ESUS (OR 2.8 95% CI 1.2-6.4). Non-CW morphology was also associated with embolic stroke subtypes, but the effect size was much less pronounced. Studies using the cLAA-CS yielded mixed results for inter- and intra-rater agreements but most showed an association between a non-CW morphology and stroke with no difference among the three non-CW subtypes. CONCLUSION:The LAA-H/L classification system is simple, has excellent intra and inter-rater agreements, and may help risk identify patients with cardioembolic stroke subtypes. Larger studies are needed to validate these findings.
METHODS:PURPOSE:Low-molecular-weight heparins are currently the recommended antithrombotic therapy for treatment and prevention of malignancy-related venous thromboembolism. Currently, the evidence evaluating direct oral anticoagulants versus low-molecular-weight heparins or a vitamin K antagonist in cancer patients with hematologic malignancies is limited. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants for venous thromboembolism treatment or stroke prevention for non-valvular atrial fibrillation in patients with hematologic malignancies. METHODS:This was a retrospective evaluation of adult patients with hematologic malignancies who received at least one dose of the Food and Drug Administration-approved direct oral anticoagulant for venous thromboembolism treatment or stroke prevention. We determined the frequency of major bleeding events, non-major bleeding events, stroke, systemic embolism, appropriateness of initial direct oral anticoagulant doses, holding practices prior to procedures, and the rate of all-cause mortality. An analysis was also performed to compare the incidence of bleeding between patients with a history of hematopoietic stem cell transplant to non-transplant patients. RESULTS:A total of 103 patients were identified, with the majority of patients receiving rivaroxaban for venous thromboembolism treatment. Major bleeding events occurred in four patients and no fatal bleeding events occurred. Non-major bleeding occurred in 29 patients, most commonly epistaxis and bruising. Two patients experienced a systemic embolism while on direct oral anticoagulant therapy. CONCLUSION:Direct oral anticoagulants may be a safe and effective alternative for anticoagulation therapy in patients with hematologic malignancies. However, larger prospective studies comparing direct oral anticoagulants to low-molecular-weight heparins or vitamin K antagonists are warranted to compare efficacy and safety outcomes in this patient population.
METHODS::It has been over two decades since the very first robotic cardiac surgery was performed. Over the years, there has been an increase in the demand for less invasive cardiac surgical techniques. Developments in technology and engineering have provided an opportunity for robotic surgery to be applied to a variety of cardiac procedures, including coronary revascularisation, mitral valve surgery, atrial fibrillation ablation, and others. In coronary revascularisation, it is becoming more widely used in single vessel, as well as hybrid coronary artery approaches. Currently, several international centres are specialising in a totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass surgery involving multiple vessels. Mitral valve and other intracardiac pathologies such as atrial septal defect and intracardiac tumour are also increasingly being addressed robotically. Even though some studies have shown good results with robot-assisted cardiac surgery, there are still concerns about safety, cost and clinical efficacy. There are also limitations and additional challenges with the management of cardiopulmonary bypass and myocardial protection during robotic surgery. Implementing novel strategies to manage these challenges, together with careful patient selection can go a long way to producing satisfactory results. This review examines the current evidence behind robotic surgery in various aspects of cardiac surgery.