- 作者列表："Van Steenkiste G","De Clercq D","Boussy T","Vera L","Schauvliege S","Decloedt A","van Loon G
BACKGROUND:Ultra-high-density cardiac mapping allows very accurate characterisation of atrial and ventricular electrophysiology and activation timing. OBJECTIVE:To describe the technique and evaluate the feasibility of magnetic electro-anatomical mapping of the equine heart. STUDY DESIGN:In vivo experimental method development. METHODS:A mapping system using an 8.5F bidirectional deflectable catheter with a deployable mini-basket (3-22 mm) containing 64 electrodes divided over eight splines was evaluated. Based upon predefined beat acceptance criteria, the system automatically acquires endocardial electrograms and catheter location information. Electro-anatomical maps were acquired from four horses in sinus rhythm under general anaesthesia. RESULTS:All endocardial areas within each chamber could be reached. Access to the left atrium required the use of a deflectable sheath. With the exception of the left atrial map of horse 1, all four chambers in all four horses could be mapped. Optimisation of the beat acceptance criteria led to a reduction in manual correction of the automatically accepted beats from 13.1% in the first horse to 0.4% of the beats in the last horse. MAIN LIMITATIONS:Only a limited number of horses were included in the study. CONCLUSION:Ultra-high-density 3D electro-anatomical mapping is feasible in adult horses and is a promising tool for electrophysiological research and characterisation of complex arrhythmias.
背景: 超高密度心脏标测可以非常准确地表征心房和心室电生理学和激活时间。 目的: 探讨马心脏磁电解剖标测技术的可行性。 研究设计: 体内实验方法开发。 方法: 评估使用8.5F双向可偏转导管的标测系统，该导管具有可展开的微型篮 (3-22毫米)，包含在8条样条上分开的64个电极。基于预定义的搏动接受标准，系统自动获取心内膜电描记图和导管位置信息。在全身麻醉下从窦性心律中的四匹马获取电解剖图。 结果: 每个腔室内的所有心内膜区域均可到达。进入左心房需要使用可偏转的鞘。除了马1的左心房图之外，所有四匹马中的所有四个腔室都可以被映射。节拍接受标准的优化导致自动接受节拍的手动校正从第一匹马的13.1% 减少到最后一匹马的0.4%。 主要限制: 研究中仅包括有限数量的马。 结论: 超高密度三维电解剖图在成年马中是可行的，并且是用于复杂心律失常的电生理研究和表征的有前途的工具。
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The current left atrial appendage (LAA) classification system (cLAA-CS) categorizes it into 4 morphologies: chicken wing (CW), windsock, cactus, and cauliflower, though there is limited data on either reliability or associations between different morphologies and stroke risk. We aimed to develop a simplified LAA classification system and to determine its relationship to embolic stroke subtypes. METHODS:Consecutive patients with ischemic stroke from a prospective stroke registry who previously underwent a clinically-indicated chest CT were included. Stroke subtype was determined and LAA morphology was classified using the traditional system (in which CW = low risk) and a new system (LAA-H/L, in which low risk morphology (LAA-L) was defined as an acute angle bend or fold from the proximal/middle portion of the LAA and high risk morphology (LAA-H) was defined as all others). As a proof of concept study, we determined reliability for the two classification systems, and we assessed the associations between both classification systems with stroke subtypes in our cohort and previous studies. RESULTS:We identified 329 ischemic stroke patients with a qualifying chest CT (126 cardioembolic subtype, 116 embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS), and 87 non-cardioembolic subtypes). Intra- and inter-rater agreements improved using the LAA-H/L (0.95 and 0.85, respectively) vs. cLAA-CS (0.50 and 0.40). The LAA-H/L led to classifying 69 LAA morphologies that met criteria for CW as LAA-H. In fully adjusted models, LAA-H was associated with cardioembolic stroke (OR 5.4, 95%CI 2.1-13.7) and ESUS (OR 2.8 95% CI 1.2-6.4). Non-CW morphology was also associated with embolic stroke subtypes, but the effect size was much less pronounced. Studies using the cLAA-CS yielded mixed results for inter- and intra-rater agreements but most showed an association between a non-CW morphology and stroke with no difference among the three non-CW subtypes. CONCLUSION:The LAA-H/L classification system is simple, has excellent intra and inter-rater agreements, and may help risk identify patients with cardioembolic stroke subtypes. Larger studies are needed to validate these findings.
METHODS:PURPOSE:Low-molecular-weight heparins are currently the recommended antithrombotic therapy for treatment and prevention of malignancy-related venous thromboembolism. Currently, the evidence evaluating direct oral anticoagulants versus low-molecular-weight heparins or a vitamin K antagonist in cancer patients with hematologic malignancies is limited. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants for venous thromboembolism treatment or stroke prevention for non-valvular atrial fibrillation in patients with hematologic malignancies. METHODS:This was a retrospective evaluation of adult patients with hematologic malignancies who received at least one dose of the Food and Drug Administration-approved direct oral anticoagulant for venous thromboembolism treatment or stroke prevention. We determined the frequency of major bleeding events, non-major bleeding events, stroke, systemic embolism, appropriateness of initial direct oral anticoagulant doses, holding practices prior to procedures, and the rate of all-cause mortality. An analysis was also performed to compare the incidence of bleeding between patients with a history of hematopoietic stem cell transplant to non-transplant patients. RESULTS:A total of 103 patients were identified, with the majority of patients receiving rivaroxaban for venous thromboembolism treatment. Major bleeding events occurred in four patients and no fatal bleeding events occurred. Non-major bleeding occurred in 29 patients, most commonly epistaxis and bruising. Two patients experienced a systemic embolism while on direct oral anticoagulant therapy. CONCLUSION:Direct oral anticoagulants may be a safe and effective alternative for anticoagulation therapy in patients with hematologic malignancies. However, larger prospective studies comparing direct oral anticoagulants to low-molecular-weight heparins or vitamin K antagonists are warranted to compare efficacy and safety outcomes in this patient population.
METHODS::It has been over two decades since the very first robotic cardiac surgery was performed. Over the years, there has been an increase in the demand for less invasive cardiac surgical techniques. Developments in technology and engineering have provided an opportunity for robotic surgery to be applied to a variety of cardiac procedures, including coronary revascularisation, mitral valve surgery, atrial fibrillation ablation, and others. In coronary revascularisation, it is becoming more widely used in single vessel, as well as hybrid coronary artery approaches. Currently, several international centres are specialising in a totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass surgery involving multiple vessels. Mitral valve and other intracardiac pathologies such as atrial septal defect and intracardiac tumour are also increasingly being addressed robotically. Even though some studies have shown good results with robot-assisted cardiac surgery, there are still concerns about safety, cost and clinical efficacy. There are also limitations and additional challenges with the management of cardiopulmonary bypass and myocardial protection during robotic surgery. Implementing novel strategies to manage these challenges, together with careful patient selection can go a long way to producing satisfactory results. This review examines the current evidence behind robotic surgery in various aspects of cardiac surgery.