- 作者列表："Lv H","Wu NC","Tsang OT","Yuan M","Perera RAPM","Leung WS","So RTY","Chan JMC","Yip GK","Chik TSH","Wang Y","Choi CYC","Lin Y","Ng WW","Zhao J","Poon LLM","Peiris JSM","Wilson IA","Mok CKP
:The World Health Organization has declared the ongoing outbreak of COVID-19, which is caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, a pandemic. There is currently a lack of knowledge about the antibody response elicited from SARS-CoV-2 infection. One major immunological question concerns antigenic differences between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. We address this question by analyzing plasma from patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV and from infected or immunized mice. Our results show that, although cross-reactivity in antibody binding to the spike protein is common, cross-neutralization of the live viruses may be rare, indicating the presence of a non-neutralizing antibody response to conserved epitopes in the spike. Whether such low or non-neutralizing antibody response leads to antibody-dependent disease enhancement needs to be addressed in the future. Overall, this study not only addresses a fundamental question regarding antigenicity differences between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV but also has implications for immunogen design and vaccine development.
METHODS::More than 10 years after the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended routine HIV testing for patients in emergency departments (ED) and other clinical settings, as many as three out of four patients may not be offered testing, and those who are offered testing frequently decline. The current study examines how participant characteristics, including demographics and reported substance use, influence the efficacy of a video-based intervention designed to increase HIV testing among ED patients who initially declined tests offered by hospital staff. Data from three separate trials in a high volume New York City ED were merged to determine whether patients (N = 560) were more likely to test post-intervention if: (1) they resembled people who appeared onscreen in terms of gender or race; or (2) they reported problem substance use. Chi Square and logistic regression analyses indicated demographic concordance did not significantly increase likelihood of accepting an HIV test. However, participants who reported problem substance use (n = 231) were significantly more likely to test for HIV in comparison to participants who reported either no problem substance use (n = 190) or no substance use at all (n = 125) (x2 = 6.830, p < 0.05). Specifically, 36.4% of patients who reported problem substance use tested for HIV post-intervention compared to 30.5% of patients who did not report problem substance use and 28.8% of participants who did not report substance use at all. This may be an important finding because substance use, including heavy alcohol or cannabis use, can lead to behaviors that increase HIV risk, such as sex with multiple partners or decreased condom use.
METHODS::HIV self-testing has the potential to improve test access and uptake, but concerns remain regarding counselling and support during and after HIV self-testing. We investigated an oral HIV self-testing strategy together with a mobile phone/tablet application to see if and how it provided counselling and support, and how it might impact test access. This ethnographic study was nested within an ongoing observational cohort study in Cape Town, South Africa. Qualitative data was collected from study participants and study staff using 33 semi-structured interviews, one focus group discussion, and observation notes. The app provided information and guidance while also addressing privacy concerns. The flexibility and support provided by the strategy gave participants more control in choosing whom they included during testing. Accessibility concerns included smartphone access and usability issues for older and rural users. The adaptable access and support of this strategy could aid in expanding test access in South Africa.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Several Kell-system antibodies are known to cause direct agglutination. Also, some specificities, such as anti-Ku, have been reported to react only via the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). METHODS:Herein, we describe the case of a 61-year-old alloimmunized white woman who presented to an outside hospital with a gastrointestinal (GI) bleed and a "possible anti-Ku" was reported with 3+ reactivity at PEG-IAT and at Ficin-IAT; in addition to an unidentified cold antibody. Subsequently, when the patient presented to a second outside hospital, an anti-Ku that caused 3+ to 4+ reactions at saline-immediate spin (IS) was identified. The reactivity was evaluated with 0.01-M dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment of the plasma. RESULTS:It was determined that the strong agglutination with saline-IS was caused by immunoglobulin (Ig)M anti-Ku. CONCLUSION:To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an IgM anti-Ku.