Thyroid cancer metastasis is associated with an overabundance of defective follicular helper T cells.
- 作者列表："Qian G","Wu M","Zhao Y","Li Q","Zhang M","Cai C","Tong D
:Metastatic thyroid cancers are more difficult to treat and have a significantly worse prognosis than localized thyroid cancers. Previous studies have shown that follicular helper T cells (Tfh) may participate in antitumor immune responses. Here, we investigated the characteristics of Tfh cells in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) at various severities, including patients with localized disease, cervical metastasis, and distant metastasis. In circulating CD4 T cells, the proportion of CD4+ CXCR5+ Tfh-like cells was significantly higher in patients with distant metastasis than in healthy controls, patients with local disease, and patients with cervical metastasis. Also, the expression of Tfh cell-associated surface molecules, such as PD-1, ICOS, and BTLA, tended to be higher in patients with cervical and distant metastasis than in healthy controls. However, the expression of secreted molecules, such as IL-10, IL-21, and CXCL13, was significantly lower in patients with distant metastasis than in healthy controls and patients with local disease. Additionally, circulating Tfh-like cells from patients with distant metastasis were less capable of supporting B-cell growth and IgM secretion. We also examined the CD4+ CXCR5+ Tfh-like cells in tumor samples. Tumor-infiltrating Tfh-like cells were highly enriched in the pulmonary metastasis compared to the local tumor and the cervical metastasis. However, tumor-infiltrating Tfh-like cells from pulmonary metastasis displayed higher PD-1, TIM-3, and lower IL-21 expression than those from the local tumor. Together, this study identified that the metastasis of DTC patients was associated with an overabundance of defective Tfh cells.
: 转移性甲状腺癌比局限性甲状腺癌更难治疗，预后明显更差。既往研究表明滤泡辅助性T细胞 (Tfh) 可能参与抗肿瘤免疫应答。在这里，我们研究了不同严重程度的分化型甲状腺癌 (DTC) 患者的Tfh细胞特征，包括患有局部疾病、颈部转移和远处转移的患者。在循环CD4 + T细胞中，远处转移患者的CD4 + CXCR5 + Tfh样细胞比例显著高于健康对照组、局部疾病患者和颈部转移患者。此外，Tfh细胞相关表面分子 (例如PD-1、ICOS和BTLA) 的表达在具有宫颈和远处转移的患者中比在健康对照中更高。然而，分泌分子如IL-10、IL-21和CXCL13的表达在远处转移的患者中显著低于健康对照和局部疾病患者。此外，来自远处转移患者的循环Tfh样细胞支持b细胞生长和IgM分泌的能力较低。我们还检测了肿瘤样品中的CD4 + CXCR5 + Tfh样细胞。与局部肿瘤和颈部转移相比，肿瘤浸润的Tfh样细胞在肺转移中高度富集。然而，来自肺转移的肿瘤浸润性Tfh样细胞比来自局部肿瘤的细胞显示出更高的PD-1、TIM-3和更低的IL-21表达。总之，本研究确定DTC患者的转移与过度丰富的缺陷Tfh细胞有关。
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Large inoperable sacral chordomas show unsatisfactory local control rates even when treated with high dose proton therapy (PT). The aim of this study is assessing feasibility and reporting early results of patients treated with PT and concomitant hyperthermia (HT). METHODS: :Patients had histologically proven unresectable sacral chordomas and received 70 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 2.5 Gy fractions with concomitant weekly HT. Toxicity was assessed according to CTCAE_v4. A volumetric tumor response analysis was performed. RESULTS: :Five patients were treated with the combined approach. Median baseline tumor volume was 735 cc (range, 369-1142). All patients completed PT and received a median of 5 HT sessions (range, 2-6). Median follow-up was 18 months (range, 9-26). The volumetric analysis showed an objective response of all tumors (median shrinkage 46%; range, 9-72). All patients experienced acute Grade 2-3 local pain. One patient presented with a late Grade 3 iliac fracture. CONCLUSION:Combining PT and HT in large inoperable sacral chordomas is feasible and causes acceptable toxicity. Volumetric analysis shows promising early results, warranting confirmation in the framework of a prospective trial. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: :This is an encouraging first report of the feasibility and early results of concomitant HT and PT in treating inoperable sacral chordoma.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:National guidelines recommend screening and treatment for cancer-related bone disease and continued monitoring of bone-modifying agents. It is unclear whether a standardized screening tool is utilized to identify eligible patients and ensure appropriate supportive care is implemented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current prescribing practices and optimize management of bone-modifying agents. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients who received hormone deprivation therapy or had bone metastases through Hematology/Oncology or Urology clinics from 1 November 2016 to 31 October 2017. The primary endpoints of this study were the incidence of completed baseline dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan for patients on hormone deprivation therapy and percent of patients started on a bone-modifying agent for the prevention of skeletal-related events secondary to bone metastasis. Secondary endpoints included percent of patients with dental examinations prior to initiation, adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation, incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw or flu-like symptoms and education, and percent of bisphosphonate doses appropriately adjusted based on renal function. RESULTS:A total of 375 patients were assessed for baseline DEXA scans and bone-modifying therapy. Of the 226 patients on hormone deprivation therapy, 111 (49%) patients were appropriately screened with a DEXA scan prior to initiation of hormone deprivation therapy. Among the 149 patients with bone metastases, only 94 (63.1%) patients were started on a bone-modifying agent. CONCLUSIONS:Opportunities have been identified to optimize management of patients with cancer-related bone disease. Implementation of standardized tools may increase the rate of appropriate screening and initiation of bone-modifying therapy when warranted.
METHODS:PURPOSE:Low skeletal muscle mass has been associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced lung cancer. However, little is known about the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and overall survival in patients with bone metastases from lung cancer. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of low trunk muscle mass in predicting overall survival in these patients. METHODS:The data from 198 patients who were diagnosed with bone metastases from lung cancer from April 2009 to May 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The areas of the psoas and paravertebral muscles were measured at the level of the third lumbar vertebra on computed tomography scans taken at the time nearest to the diagnosis of bone metastasis. Muscle area was evaluated for male and female cohorts separately using different cutoff points. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to evaluate the factors independently associated with overall survival. RESULTS:The overall survival of patients in the lowest quartile for psoas muscle area or paravertebral muscle area was significantly shorter than that of patients above the 25th percentile for muscle area (p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses showed that paravertebral muscle mass (hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.56; p = 0.006), epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy, and performance status were independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS:Low paravertebral muscle mass was associated with shorter survival, independently of known prognostic factors.