p85β regulates autophagic degradation of AXL to activate oncogenic signaling.

p85β 调节AXL的自噬降解以激活致癌信号。

  • 影响因子:12.19
  • DOI:10.1038/s41467-020-16061-7
  • 作者列表:"Rao L","Mak VCY","Zhou Y","Zhang D","Li X","Fung CCY","Sharma R","Gu C","Lu Y","Tipoe GL","Cheung ANY","Mills GB","Cheung LWT
  • 发表时间:2020-05-08

:PIK3R2 encodes the p85β regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and is frequently amplified in cancers. The signaling mechanism and therapeutic implication of p85β are poorly understood. Here we report that p85β upregulates the protein level of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL to induce oncogenic signaling in ovarian cancer. p85β activates p110 activity and AKT-independent PDK1/SGK3 signaling to promote tumorigenic phenotypes, which are all abolished upon inhibition of AXL. At the molecular level, p85β alters the phosphorylation of TRIM2 (an E3 ligase) and optineurin (an autophagy receptor), which mediate the selective regulation of AXL by p85β, thereby disrupting the autophagic degradation of the AXL protein. Therapeutically, p85β expression renders ovarian cancer cells vulnerable to inhibitors of AXL, p110, or PDK1. Conversely, p85β-depleted cells are less sensitive to these inhibitors. Together, our findings provide a rationale for pharmacological blockade of the AXL signaling axis in PIK3R2-amplified ovarian cancer.


: PIK3R2编码磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶的p85β 调节亚基,在癌症中经常扩增。p85β 的信号传导机制和治疗意义知之甚少。在这里,我们报道了p85β 上调受体酪氨酸激酶AXL的蛋白质水平以诱导卵巢癌中的致癌信号。p85β 激活p110活性和AKT非依赖性PDK1/SGK3信号传导以促进致瘤表型,这些表型在抑制AXL时都被消除。在分子水平上,p85β 改变了TRIM2 (一种E3连接酶) 和optineurin (一种自噬受体) 的磷酸化,它们介导了p85β 对AXL的选择性调节,从而破坏了AXL蛋白的自噬降解。在治疗上,p85β 表达使卵巢癌细胞易受AXL、p110或pdk1抑制剂的影响。相反,p85β 耗尽的细胞对这些抑制剂的敏感性较低。总之,我们的发现为PIK3R2-amplified卵巢癌中AXL信号轴的药理学阻断提供了理论依据。



作者列表:["Ellis RJ","Schlick CJR","Yang AD","Barber EL","Bilimoria KY","Merkow RP"]

METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) is an effective treatment option for selected patients with peritoneal metastases (PM), but national utilization patterns are poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe population-based trends in national utilization of CRS/IPC; (2) define the most common indications for the procedure; and (3) characterize the types of hospitals performing the procedure. METHODS:The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used to identify patients from 2006 to 2015 who underwent CRS/IPC, and to calculate national estimates of procedural frequency and oncologic indication. Hospitals performing CRS/IPC were classified based on size and teaching status. RESULTS:The estimated annual number of CRS/IPC cases increased significantly from 189 to 1540 (p < 0.001). Overall, appendiceal cancer was the most common indication (25.7%), followed by ovarian cancer (23.3%), colorectal cancer (22.5%), and unspecified PM (15.0%). Remaining cases (13.5%) were performed for other indications. Most cases were performed in large teaching hospitals (65.9%), compared with smaller teaching hospitals (25.1%), large non-teaching hospitals (5.3%), or small non-teaching hospitals (3.2%). Patients were more likely to undergo CRS/IPC without a diagnosis based on level I evidence (appendiceal, ovarian, or colorectal) at large non-academic hospitals (odds ratio 2.00, 95% confidence interval 1.18-3.38, p = 0.010) compared with large academic hospitals. CONCLUSIONS:Utilization of CRS/IPC is increasing steadily in the US, is performed at many types of facilities, and often for a variety of indications that are not supported by high-level evidence. Given associated morbidity of CRS/IPC, a national registry dedicated to cases of IPC is necessary to further evaluate use and outcomes.

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作者列表:["Grundy A","Ho V","Abrahamowicz M","Parent MÉ","Siemiatycki J","Arseneau J","Gilbert L","Gotlieb WH","Provencher DM","Koushik A"]

METHODS::Results of epidemiologic studies of physical activity and ovarian cancer risk are inconsistent. Few have attempted to measure physical activity over the lifetime or in specific age windows, which may better capture etiologically relevant exposures. We examined participation in moderate-to-vigorous recreational physical activity (MVPA) in relation to ovarian cancer risk. In a population-based case-control study conducted in Montreal, Canada from 2011 to 2016 (485 cases and 887 controls), information was collected on lifetime participation in various recreational physical activities, which was used to estimate MVPA for each participant. MVPA was represented as average energy expenditure over the lifetime and in specific age-periods in units of metabolic equivalents (METs)-hours per week. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the relation between average MVPA and ovarian cancer risk were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models. Confounding was assessed using directed acyclic graphs combined with a change-in-estimate approach. The adjusted OR (95% CI) for each 28.5 MET-hr/week increment of lifetime recreational MVPA was 1.11 (0.99-1.24) for ovarian cancer overall. ORs for individual age-periods were weaker. When examined by menopausal status, the OR (95% CI) for lifetime MVPA was 1.21 (1.00-1.45) for those diagnosed before menopause and 1.04 (0.89-1.21) for those diagnosed postmenopausally. The suggestive positive associations were stronger for invasive ovarian cancers and more specifically for high-grade serous carcinomas. These results do not support a reduced ovarian cancer risk associated with MVPA.

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作者列表:["Çetin M","Tunçdemir P","Karaman K","Yel S","Karaman E","Özgökçe M","Kömüroğlu AU"]

METHODS::The aim of our study was to evaluate whether cardiovascular disease risks seen in adults with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) develop in adolescents with PCOS using conventional Doppler echocardiography (CDE) and tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) or not. The other aim was to investigate the association of paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) level with cardiovascular parameters. 30 PCOS patients and 30 control patients were included in the study. All patients were evaluated with TDE and CDE. Paraoxonase-1 levels of both groups were studied. In CDE study, myocardial performance index (MPI) was higher in the PCOS group than in the control group (0.54 ± 0.11, 0.50 ± 0.12, p = .049, respectively). In the TDE study, early diastolic myocardial velocity (E)'/late diastolic myocardial velocity (A') was lower in PCOS group than in the control group (2.07 ± 0.08, 2.44 ± 0.10, p = .008, respectively). PON-1 was higher in PCOS group than in the control group (26.81 ± 3.05, 18.68 ± 1.18, p = .011, respectively). Cardiovascular disease risks, which are among the long-term complications of PCOS, seem to begin from the early stage of PCOS. The high PON-1 level was thought to increase in response to increased oxidative stress in PCOS.Impact statementWhat is already known on this subject? Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most commonly seen endocrinopathy in the adolescent age group. PCOS has detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system in the adult population which is reported in many studies.What the results of this study add? The result of this study showed that cardiovascular effects, which are among the long-term complications of PCOS, seem to begin from the early stage of PCOS. And also, serum paraoxonase-1 level increases in response to the oxidative stress in the adolescent with PCOS.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? The cardiovascular system evaluation should be started in early phases of PCOS development in the adolescent age group. The potential role of oxidative effect of Paraoxonase-1 on the PCOS needs to be elucidated in further studies.

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