A mitochondrial genetic divergence proxy predicts the reproductive compatibility of mammalian hybrids.
- 作者列表："Allen R","Ryan H","Davis BW","King C","Frantz L","Irving-Pease E","Barnett R","Linderholm A","Loog L","Haile J","Lebrasseur O","White M","Kitchener AC","Murphy WJ","Larson G
:Numerous pairs of evolutionarily divergent mammalian species have been shown to produce hybrid offspring. In some cases, F1 hybrids are able to produce F2s through matings with F1s. In other instances, the hybrids are only able to produce offspring themselves through backcrosses with a parent species owing to unisexual sterility (Haldane's Rule). Here, we explicitly tested whether genetic distance, computed from mitochondrial and nuclear genes, can be used as a proxy to predict the relative fertility of the hybrid offspring resulting from matings between species of terrestrial mammals. We assessed the proxy's predictive power using a well-characterized felid hybrid system, and applied it to modern and ancient hominins. Our results revealed a small overlap in mitochondrial genetic distance values that distinguish species pairs whose calculated distances fall within two categories: those whose hybrid offspring follow Haldane's Rule, and those whose hybrid F1 offspring can produce F2s. The strong correlation between genetic distance and hybrid fertility demonstrated here suggests that this proxy can be employed to predict whether the hybrid offspring of two mammalian species will follow Haldane's Rule.
: 许多对进化上不同的哺乳动物物种已经被证明可以产生杂交后代。在某些情况下，F1杂种能够通过与F1交配来生产F2s。在其他情况下，由于单性不育 (霍尔丹法则)，杂种只能通过与亲本物种的回交产生后代。在这里，我们明确测试了从线粒体和核基因计算的遗传距离是否可以用作预测陆生哺乳动物物种之间交配导致的杂交后代相对生育力的代理。我们使用一个表征良好的felid混合系统评估了代理的预测能力，并将其应用于现代和古代人类。我们的研究结果揭示了线粒体遗传距离值的一个小的重叠，它们区分了计算距离属于两类的物种对: 那些杂交后代遵循霍尔丹法则的物种对，以及那些杂交F1后代能够产生F2s的物种对。这里证明的遗传距离和杂种生育力之间的强相关性表明，这个代理可以用来预测两个哺乳动物物种的杂种后代是否会遵循霍尔丹法则。
METHODS::1. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) and cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes participating in the protection of cell. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null, glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) null, glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) Ile105Val, cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) 734 C→A, cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) 1934 G→A and male infertility.2. A total of 306 azoospermic or oligozoospermic infertile men and 129 normozoospermic or fertile controls were enrolled in the study. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods were used for genotyping. There was a significant relationship between male infertility and CYP2D6 GG genotype (p < 0.001). CYP1A2 AA genotype was slightly higher in the infertile group (p = 0.056).3. There was no association between GSTT1 null polymorphisms and male infertility (p = 0.068), GSTM1 null (p = 0.843) and GSTP1 Ile105Val (p = 0.192) genes. GSTM1 null genotype frequency was higher in azoospermic men (p = 0.009). Men carrying CYP1A2 AA genotype had higher risk of infertility risk (OR = 3.14; %95 CI = 1.16-8.54) in the smoker group.4. Our results demonstrated that polymorphisms of CYP2D6 and CYP1A2 may play a role in idiopathic male infertility in our sample population.
METHODS:PURPOSE:This study evaluated the effect of counseling based on the choice theory on irrational parenthood cognition (IPC)- and marital quality in infertile women. DESIGN AND METHODS:This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 50 primary infertile women in Zanjan, Iran. Stratified block randomization was used to allocate participants to groups. The intervention group received counseling, but the control group received routine care. Data were collected using the IPC and marital relationships quality based on the Glasser's choice theory. FINDINGS:A statistically significant difference was found between the groups in IPC (P = 0.005), but the difference in marital quality was not statically significant ( P = 0.085). PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS:Counseling can be used for decreasing IPC, but more interventions are needed to increase marital quality.
METHODS::A decrease in cancer deaths has resulted in the possibility of child bearing for many young adult cancer survivors. Most antitumor treatment modalities are detrimental to female fertility, and methods for fertility preservation before gonadotoxic treatment, including cryopreservation of oocytes, embryos and ovarian tissue, have therefore been developed. This review focuses on the ovarian function of cancer patients, the safety and efficacy of fertility preservation methods, and the pregnancy outcomes of these patients. Breast cancer and hematological tumors constitute the majority of cancers in reproductive-aged female oncology patients. Ovarian function may not be impacted by breast cancer cells, while in patients with hematological malignancies, decreases in anti-Müllerian hormone and antral follicle counts have been demonstrated. In most cases, patients can undergo ovarian stimulation without delaying treatment, and a new stimulation protocol known as dual stimulation, which may be more efficient, has now been developed. Birth outcomes are also acceptable in cancer patients.