Papillary Thyroid Cancer Tumor Spheres Cultured by Passaging Without Sorting Exhibit Cancer Stemness.
- 作者列表："Cho JM","Lee HJ","Chung JH","Kim WY","Kang MH","Ha KS","Woo SU","Lee JB
AIM:Cancer stem-like cell (CSC) markers and the role of CSCs derived from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in pathogenesis are unclear. This study aimed to investigate CSC properties using tumor spheres from passaged PTC cells but without sorting CSCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS:To identify the properties of CSCs derived from PTC, the expression of SRY-box transcription factor 2(SOX2), octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), Nanog homeobox (NANOG), thyroglobulin (TG), thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), E-cadherin, YES-associated protein 1 (YAP1), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was investigated in tumor spheres serially passaged without sorting CSCs. RESULTS:The cultured tumor spheres had cancer stemness; high expression of OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and YAP1; low expression of E-cadherin; and varied expression of TG, TSHR, and STAT3. PTC tumor spheres transfected with small interfering RNA targeting YAP1 had fewer CSC properties than the non-transfected tumor spheres did. CONCLUSION:Tumor spheres derived from PTC cells by passaging without sorting CSCs have more stem-like cell properties, and less differentiation potential. Thus, this simple and cost-effective method can be used for the enrichment of PTC stemness for employment in cell-based models, reducing the need for use of animal models.
目的: 癌干样细胞 (CSC) 标志物和甲状腺乳头状癌 (PTC) 来源的CSC在发病机制中的作用尚不清楚。本研究旨在使用来自传代PTC细胞但不分选CSCs的肿瘤球来研究CSC特性。 材料和方法: 鉴定来源于PTC的CSCs的特性，SRY-box转录因子2(SOX2) 、八聚体结合转录因子4 (OCT4) 、Nanog同源盒 (NANOG) 、甲状腺球蛋白 (TG) 、促甲状腺激素受体 (TSHR) 的表达，E-cadherin、YES相关蛋白1 (YAP1) 和信号转导子和转录激活因子3(STAT3) 在连续传代的肿瘤球体中进行研究，而不分选CSCs。 结果: 培养的肿瘤球具有癌干性; OCT4、SOX2、NANOG和YAP1高表达; E-cadherin低表达; TG、TSHR和stat3表达不同。用靶向YAP1的小干扰RNA转染的PTC肿瘤球比未转染的肿瘤球具有更少的CSC特性。 结论: 通过传代而不分选CSCs的PTC细胞衍生的肿瘤球具有更多的干细胞样细胞特性，并且较少的分化潜能。因此，这种简单且成本有效的方法可用于富集PTC干性，以用于基于细胞的模型，从而减少使用动物模型的需要。
METHODS::Ancillary molecular testing has emerged as a promising way to refine the preoperative risk stratification of thyroid nodules with indeterminate fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy results. Commercially available molecular tests for thyroid FNAs include those that analyze samples for mutations and gene fusions, gene expression alterations, microRNA expression alterations, chromosomal copy number alterations, or a combination thereof. This review summarizes the performance characteristics of the most current iterations of three tests currently marketed for cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules: ThyroSeq v3, ThyGeNEXT/ThyraMIR, and Afirma Gene Sequencing Classifier.
METHODS:OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS:The definition of large-volume pathologic N1 metastases has been changed in the 2017 version 2 of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, leading to a controversy over the optimal surgical approach selection for patients with biopsy-proven papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of total thyroidectomy (TT) and thyroid lobectomy (TL) for these patients. STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective population-based database analysis. METHODS:A total of 906 consecutive PTC patients with pathologic N1 metastases (>5 involved nodes with metastases ≤5 mm in the largest dimension) were retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, and divided into two groups (≤2 mm, >2-5 mm) based on the size of the extent of disease. Overall survival (OS) was then compared between patients treated with TT and TL, followed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to explore multiple prognostic factors. RESULTS:OS favored TT compared with TL in patients with more than five involved nodes and metastases >2 to 5 mm in the largest dimension (P < .05). Cox analysis showed that the TL was not an independent factor associated with poorer OS than TT in these patients (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS:TT showed better survival than TL for patients with more than five involved nodes and metastases >2 to 5 mm in the largest dimension. For patients with more than five involved nodes and metastases ≤2 mm in the largest dimension, either TT or TL can be recommended because there was no difference in survival. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:NA Laryngoscope, 130:269-273, 2020.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Obesity, diabetes mellitus may be related to the health, the relationship and the physiological capacity of the production of thyroid hormones (TH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). OBJECTIVES:The main aims of this review are to describe the relationship between obesity, appetite, weight management, hormonal mechanisms of diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism post-bariatric surgery. METHODOLOGY:An in-depth literature search was conducted to identify scientific studies, which analyzed the correlation between diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism post-bariatric surgery. RESULTS:Bariatric surgery decreases hypothyroidism, reduces the need for pharmacological action (such as levothyroxine), controls the weight and body fat and increases the sensitivity to leptin and insulin. CONCLUSION:The reduction of the stomach and intestine by bariatric surgery is an evolutionary and beneficial action, because it may lead to a drastic decrease on numbers of conditions such as diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism, and others. Thus, new studies should also focus on patients' post-operatory conditions, such as lifetime, regulation and functioning of organs after reduced nutrition, and consumption and delivery of nutrients to health maintenance.