Abnormal glucose tolerance and the 50-gram glucose challenge test in Cystic fibrosis.
囊性纤维化的糖耐量异常和 50 克葡萄糖激发试验。
- 作者列表："Sheikh S","Localio AR","Kelly A","Rubenstein RC
:Diabetes has emerged as a major co-morbidity in cystic fibrosis (CF). The 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is used to screen for CF-related diabetes (CFRD) but is inconvenient, and adherence to screening is poor. The 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) is shorter, performed non-fasting, and may serve to pre-screen the subset of individuals requiring confirmatory OGTT. We performed a pilot study in twenty-seven CF individuals across the glucose tolerance spectrum to test whether the GCT could identify subjects with abnormal glucose tolerance defined as 2-h OGTT glucose ≥7.8 mmol/L (2 h-AGT) or 1-h defined as 1-hr OGTT glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L (1 h-AGT). A GCT threshold of 8.1 mmol/L was 73% sensitive and 63% specific for 2hr-AGT and 80% sensitive and 65% specific for 1hr-AGT. Therefore, a screening GCT may reduce need for confirmatory OGTT for identifying AGT but a larger study is warranted to identify a robust cutoff for CFRD.
: 糖尿病已成为囊性纤维化 (CF) 的主要共病。75g 口服葡萄糖耐量试验 (OGTT) 用于筛查 CF 相关糖尿病 (CFRD) 但不方便，筛查依从性差。50g 葡萄糖激发试验 (GCT) 较短，非禁食，可用于预先筛选需要确证 OGTT 的个体子集。我们在 27 名跨葡萄糖耐量谱的 CF 个体中进行了一项初步研究，以测试 GCT 是否能够识别定义为 2 h OGTT 葡萄糖 ≥ 7.8 mmol/L 的异常糖耐量受试者 (2 h-AGT) 或定义为 1-hr OGTT 葡萄糖 ≥ 11.1 mmol/L 的 1-h (1 h-AGT)。8.1 mmol/L 的 GCT 阈值对 2hr-AGT 的敏感性和特异性分别为 73% 和 63%，对 1hr-AGT 的敏感性和特异性分别为 80% 和 65%。因此，筛查 GCT 可能会减少确定 AGT 的验证性 OGTT 需求，但需要更大规模的研究来确定 CFRD 的稳健截止日期。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:To asses the clinical course in RA-related interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) patients with and without rituximab (RTX). The influence of other variables was also evaluated. METHODS:A longitudinal multicentre study was conducted in RA diagnosed with ILD from 2007 until 2018 in Madrid. Patients were included in a registry [pNEumology RhEumatology Autoinmune diseases (NEREA)] from the time of ILD diagnosis. The main endpoint was functional respiratory impairment (FI), when there was a decline ≥5% in the predicted forced vital capacity compared with the previous one. Pulmonary function was measured at baseline and in follow-up visits every 6-12 months. The independent variable was therapy with RTX. Covariables included sociodemographic, clinical, radiological and other therapies. Survival techniques were used to estimate the incidence rate (IR) and 95% CI of functional impairment, expressed per 100 patient-semesters. Cox multivariate regression models were run to examine the influence of RTX and other covariates on FI. Results were expressed as the hazard ratio (HR) and CI. RESULTS:A total of 68 patients were included. FI occurred in 42 patients [IR 23.5 (95% CI 19, 29.1)] and 50% of them had FI within 1.75 years of an ILD diagnosis. A multivariate analysis showed that RTX exposure resulted in a lower risk of FI compared with non-exposure [HR 0.51 (95% CI 0.31, 0.85)]. Interstitial pneumonia, glucocorticoids, disease activity and duration also influenced FI. CONCLUSION:RA-ILD patients deteriorate over time, with the median time free of impairment being <2 years. Patients exposed to RTX had a higher probability of remaining free of FI compared with other therapies. Other factors have also been identified. Key words: rheumatoid arthritis, interstitial lung disease, observational study, rituximab and prognosis
METHODS:The safety of anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) antibody for patients with preexisting interstitial lung disease (ILD) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dependence of preexisting ILD on anti-PD-1 antibody-induced pneumonitis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We retrospectively reviewed the association of preexisting ILD with the incidence, radiographic pattern, and outcome of pneumonitis in NSCLC patients receiving anti-PD-1 antibody. A total of 331 patients were included in this study. Of these patients, 17 had preexisting ILD. The incidence of pneumonitis was higher among the patients with preexisting ILD than among those without preexisting ILD (29% vs. 10%, P = 0.027). The distributions of the CT appearances at the onset of anti-PD-1 antibody-induced pneumonitis were as follows: for the patients with preexisting ILD, two patients (40%) had diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), one patient each with organizing pneumonia-like (OP), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), and other patterns (20% each); for the patients without preexisting ILD, 19 patients (61%) had OP, 8 (26%) had HP, 3 (10%) had DAD, and 1 (3.2%) had other patterns. The median onset time from the initiation of anti-PD-1 antibody treatment until the development of pneumonitis was 1.3 months (range 0.3–2.1 months) for the patients with preexisting ILD and 2.3 months (range 0.2–14.6 months) for the patients without preexisting ILD. Careful attention to the development of pneumonitis is needed, especially within the first 3 months after the start of anti-PD-1 antibody treatment, when using anti-PD-1 antibody to treat patients with preexisting ILD.
METHODS::Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are ubiquitous multidrug resistant organisms and opportunistic pathogens capable of causing life threatening lung infections among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. No effective therapies are currently available to eradicate Bcc bacteria from CF patients, as these organisms are inherently resistant to the majority of clinically available antimicrobials. An immunoproteomics approach was used to identify Bcc proteins that stimulate the humoral immune response of the CF host, using bacterial cells grown under conditions mimicking the CF lung environment and serum samples from CF patients with a clinical record of Bcc infection. 24 proteins of the Bcc strain B. cenocepacia J2315 were identified as immunoreactive, 19 here reported as immunogenic for the first time. Ten proteins were predicted as extracytoplasmic, 9 of them being conserved in Bcc genomes. The immunogenic Bcc extracytoplasmic proteins are potential targets for development of novel therapeutic strategies and diagnostic tools to protect patients against the onset of chronic Bcc lung infections.