Effectiveness of influenza vaccine in children in preventing influenza associated hospitalisation, 2018/19, England.
- 作者列表："Pebody RG","Zhao H","Whitaker HJ","Ellis J","Donati M","Zambon M","Andrews N
:2013/14 saw the start of the introduction of a new live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) programme for children in England. 2018/19 saw co-circulation of both A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2), when LAIV was offered to all healthy children 2-9 years of age. LAIV effectiveness against influenza hospitalisation is not well described. This paper presents the 2018/19 end-of-season adjusted vaccine effectiveness (aVE) against laboratory confirmed influenza related hospitalisation in children aged 2-17. The test negative case control approach was used to estimate aVE by influenza A subtype and vaccine type. Cases and controls were selected from a sentinel laboratory surveillance system which collates details of individuals tested for influenza with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on respiratory samples. Vaccine and clinical history was obtained from general practitioners of study participants. There were 307 hospitalised cases and 679 hospitalised controls. End-of-season influenza aVE was 53.0% (95% CI: 33.3, 66.8) against influenza confirmed hospitalisation; 63.5% (95% CI: 34.4, 79.7) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 hospitalisation and 31.1% (95% CI: -53.9, 69.2) against influenza A(H3N2). LAIV aVE was 49.1% (95% CI: 25.9, 65.0) for any influenza and 70.7% (95% CI: 41.8, 85.3) for A(H1N1)pdm09, whereas for those receiving quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (QIV), aVE was 64.4% (95% CI: 29.4, 82.0) and 44.4% (95% CI: -51.9, 79.6) respectively. We provide evidence of overall significant VE for both LAIV and QIV against influenza associated hospitalisation in children 2-17 years of age, most notably against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, with non-significant protection against A(H3N2).
: 2013/14 的人看到英国开始为儿童推出新的减毒活流感疫苗 (LAIV) 计划。2018/19 的人看到了 A (H1N1) pdm09 和 A (H3N2) 的共同循环，当时 LAIV 被提供给所有 2-9 岁的健康儿童。LAIV 对流感住院的有效性尚未得到很好的描述。本文介绍了针对 2-17 岁儿童实验室确诊流感相关住院的 2018/19 季末调整疫苗有效性 (aVE)。采用试验阴性病例对照方法按甲型流感亚型和疫苗类型估计 aVE。病例和对照从哨点实验室监测系统中选择，该系统在呼吸道样本上整理了用逆转录聚合酶链反应 (RT-PCR) 检测流感的个体的细节。从研究参与者的全科医生那里获得疫苗和临床病史。有 307 例住院病例和 679 例住院对照。季末流感 aVE 为 53.0% (95% CI: 33.3，66.8) 对抗流感确诊住院; 63.5% (95% CI: 34.4，79.7) 对抗甲型 H1N1 流感 pdm09 住院和 31.1% (95% CI:-53.9，69.2) 抗甲型流感 (H3N2)。LAIV aVE 为 49.1% (95% CI: 25.9，65.0) 对于任何流感和 70.7% (95% CI: 41.8，85.3) 对于 A (H1N1) pdm09, 而接受四价灭活流感疫苗 (QIV) 的人群，aVE 为 64.4% (95% CI: 29.4，82.0) 和 44.4% (95% CI:-51.9，79.6)分别。我们为 LAIV 和 QIV 提供了针对 2-17 岁儿童流感相关住院治疗的总体显著 VE 证据，最显著的是针对甲型流感 (H1N1) pdm09, 对 A (H3N2) 无显著保护作用。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:From 2015/16 through 2017/18, injectable, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV3) and a nasal spray, tetravalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) were used in parallel in Finland. To understand how well vaccination with each vaccine type protected children against influenza under real-life conditions, vaccine effectiveness in two-year-olds was estimated for all three seasons. METHODS:Each season, a nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted. The study population comprised 60,088 children in 2015/16, 60,860 children in 2016/17 and 60,345 children in 2017/18. Laboratory-confirmed influenza was the study outcome. Seasonal influenza vaccination with either LAIV4 or IIV3 was the time-dependent exposure of interest. Vaccine effectiveness was defined as 1 minus the hazard ratio comparing vaccinated with unvaccinated children. RESULTS:From 2015/16 through 2017/18, the effectiveness of LAIV4 against influenza of any virus type was estimated at 54.2% (95% confidence interval, 32.2%-69.0%), 20.3% (-12.7% to 43.6%) and 30.5% (10.9%-45.9%); the corresponding effectiveness of IIV3 was 77.2% (48.9%-89.8%), 24.5% (-29.8% to 56.1%) and -20.1% (-61.5% to 10.7%). Neither of the influenza vaccines clearly excelled in protecting children. The LAIV4 effectiveness against type B was greater than against type A and greater than the IIV3 effectiveness against type B. CONCLUSIONS:To understand how influenza vaccines could be improved, vaccine effectiveness must be analyzed by vaccine and virus type. Effectiveness estimates expressing also overall protection levels are needed to guide individual and programmatic decision-making processes. Supported by this analysis, the vaccination program in Finland now recommends LAIV4 and injectable, tetravalent inactivated influenza vaccines replacing IIV3.
METHODS::Intranasally administered influenza vaccines could be more effective than injected vaccines, since intranasal vaccination can induce virus-specific IgA antibodies in the upper respiratory tract, which is the initial site of infection. In the current study, immune responses elicited by an intranasal inactivated H5 influenza vaccine were evaluated in healthy H5 influenza virus-naive individuals. Three doses of intranasal inactivated whole-virion H5 influenza vaccine induced strong neutralizing nasal IgA and serum IgG antibodies. In addition, a mucoadhesive excipient, carboxy-vinyl polymer (CVP), had a notable impact on the induction of nasal IgA antibody responses but not serum IgG antibody responses. The nasal hemagglutinin (HA)-specific IgA antibody responses clearly correlated with mucosal neutralizing antibody responses, indicating that measurement of nasal HA-specific IgA titers could be used as a surrogate for the mucosal antibody response. Furthermore, increased numbers of plasma cells and vaccine antigen-specific helper T (Th) cells in the peripheral blood were observed after vaccination, suggesting that peripheral blood biomarkers may also be used to evaluate the intranasal vaccine-induced immune response. However, peripheral blood immune cell responses correlated with neutralizing antibody titers in serum samples but not in nasal wash samples. Thus, analysis of the peripheral blood immune response could be a surrogate for the systemic immune response to intranasal vaccination but not for the mucosal immune response. The current study suggests the clinical potential of intranasal inactivated vaccines against H5 influenza viruses and highlights the need to develop novel means to evaluate intranasal vaccine-induced mucosal immune responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Influenza is an important public health problem and existing vaccines are not completely protective. New vaccines that protect by alternative mechanisms are needed to improve efficacy of influenza vaccines. In 2015, we did a phase 1 trial of an oral influenza vaccine, VXA-A1.1. A favourable safety profile and robust immunogenicity results in that trial supported progression of the vaccine to the current phase 2 trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of the vaccine in a human influenza challenge model. METHODS:We did a single-site, placebo-controlled and active-controlled, phase 2 study at WCCT Global, Costa Mesa, CA, USA. Eligible individuals had an initial A/California/H1N1 haemagglutination inhibition titre of less than 20 and were aged 18-49 years and in good health. Individuals were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to receive a single immunisation of either 1011 infectious units of VXA-A1.1 (a monovalent tablet vaccine) orally, a full human dose of quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) via intramuscular injection, or matched placebo. Randomisation was done by computer-generated assignments with block size of five. An unmasked pharmacist provided the appropriate vaccines and placebos to the administrating nurse. Individuals receiving the treatments, investigators, and staff were all masked to group assignments. 90 days after immunisation, individuals without clinically significant symptoms or signs of influenza, an oral temperature of higher than 37·9°C, a positive result for respiratory viral shedding on a Biofire test, and any investigator-assessed contraindications were challenged intranasally with 0·5 mL wild-type A/CA/like(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus. The primary outcomes were safety, which was assessed in all immunised participants through 365 days, and influenza-positive illness after viral challenge, which was assessed in individuals that received the viral challenge and the required number of assessments post viral challenge. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02918006. RESULTS:Between Aug 31, 2016, and Jan 23, 2017, 374 individuals were assessed for eligibility, of whom 179 were randomly assigned to receive either VXA-A1.1 (n=71 [one individual did not provide a diary card, thus the solicited events were assessed in 70 individuals]), IIV (n=72), or placebo (n=36). Between Dec 2, 2016, and April 26, 2017, 143 eligible individuals (58 in the VXA-A1.1 group, 54 in the IIV group, and 31 in the placebo group) were challenged with influenza virus. VXA-A1.1 was well tolerated with no serious or medically significant adverse events. The most prevalent solicited adverse events for each of the treatment groups after immunisation were headache in the VXA-A1.1 (in five [7%] of 70 participants) and placebo (in seven [19%] of 36 participants) groups and tenderness at injection site in the IIV group (in 19 [26%] of 72 participants) Influenza-positive illness after challenge was detected in 17 (29%) of 58 individuals in the VXA-A1.1 group, 19 (35%) of 54 in the IIV group, and 15 (48%) of 31 in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION:Orally administered VXA-A1.1 was well tolerated and generated protective immunity against virus shedding, similar to a licensed intramuscular IIV. These results represent a major step forward in developing a safe and effective oral influenza vaccine. FUNDING:Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, and Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority.