Heparin improves alveolarization and vascular development in hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia by inhibiting neutrophil extracellular traps.
- 作者列表："Sun Y","Chen C","Zhang X","Wang S","Zhu R","Zhou A","Chen S","Feng J
:The objective of this study was to assess the role of NETs in BPD of hyperoxia-induced rat model and the effect of heparin on alveolarization and vascular development in BPD. The neonatal rats exposed to 90% oxygen continuously for 7 days to mimic BPD, meanwhile, the rats were injected by different doses of histones to evaluate the impact on lung injury. The newborn rats exposed to hyperoxia were injected by different doses of heparin (250 U/kg, 500 U/kg) or anti-H4 antibody to evaluate the effect of heparin. Histones and hyperoxia impaired alveolarization with the increase of mean linear intercept (MLI) and the decrease of radial alveolar count (RAC), decreased lung angiogenesis with the decrease expression of VEGF, and increased the expression of NETs, histones and pro-inflammatory factor. However, low dose heparin (250U/kg) administration enhanced survival, improved alveolarization and vascular development in hyperoxia-induced BPD, as well as reduced expression of NETs, histones and pro-inflammatory factor. We concluded that heparin improves alveolarization and vascularization in BPD by inhibiting NETs.
: 本研究的目的是评估 NETs 在高氧诱导大鼠模型 BPD 中的作用以及肝素对 BPD 肺泡化和血管发育的影响。新生大鼠连续 90% 氧暴露 7d 模拟 BPD，同时注射不同剂量的组蛋白，评价其对肺损伤的影响。用不同剂量的肝素 (250 U/kg 、 500 U/kg) 或 anti-H4 抗体对高氧暴露的新生大鼠进行肝素效果评价。组蛋白和高氧随着平均线性截距 (MLI) 的增加和放射状肺泡计数 (RAC) 的减少而损害肺泡化，随着 VEGF 表达的减少而减少肺血管生成, 并增加 NETs 、组蛋白和促炎因子的表达。然而，低剂量肝素 (250U/kg) 给药可增强高氧诱导的 BPD 的存活率，改善肺泡化和血管发育，以及降低 NETs 、组蛋白和促炎因子的表达。我们得出结论，肝素通过抑制 NETs 改善 BPD 的肺泡化和血管化。
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:A critical role for sphingosine kinase/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) pathway in the control of airway function has been demonstrated in respiratory diseases. Here, we address S1P contribution in a mouse model of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:C57BL/6J mice have been exposed to room air or cigarette smoke up to 11 months and killed at different time points. Functional and molecular studies have been performed. KEY RESULTS:Cigarette smoke caused emphysematous changes throughout the lung parenchyma coupled to a progressive collagen deposition in both peribronchiolar and peribronchial areas. The high and low airways showed an increased reactivity to cholinergic stimulation and α-smooth muscle actin overexpression. Similarly, an increase in airway reactivity and lung resistances following S1P challenge occurred in smoking mice. A high expression of S1P, Sph-K2 , and S1P receptors (S1P2 and S1P3 ) has been detected in the lung of smoking mice. Sphingosine kinases inhibition reversed the increased cholinergic response in airways of smoking mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:S1P signalling up-regulation follows the disease progression in smoking mice and is involved in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Our study defines a therapeutic potential for S1P inhibitors in management of airways hyperresponsiveness associated to emphysema in smokers with both asthma and COPD.
METHODS::The interim results from this 90-day multi-dose, inhalation toxicology study with life-time post-exposure observation has shown an important fundamental difference in persistence and pathological response in the lung between brake dust derived from brake-pads manufactured with chrysotile, TiO2 or chrysotile alone in comparison to the amphiboles, crocidolite and amosite asbestos. In the brake dust exposure groups no significant pathological response was observed at any time. Slight macrophage accumulation of particles was noted. Wagner-scores, were from 1 to 2 (1 = air-control group) and were similar to the TiO2 group. Chrysotile being biodegradable, shows a weakening of its matrix and breaking into short fibers & particles that can be cleared by alveolar macrophages and continued dissolution. In the chrysotile exposure groups, particle laden macrophage accumulation was noted leading to a slight interstitial inflammatory response (Wagner-score 1-3). There was no peribronchiolar inflammation and occasional very slight interstitial fibrosis. The histopathology and the confocal analyses clearly differentiate the pathological response from amphibole asbestos, crocidolite and amosite, compared to that from the brake dust and chrysotile. Both crocidolite and amosite induced persistent inflammation, microgranulomas, and fibrosis (Wagner-scores 4), which persisted through the post exposure period. The confocal microscopy of the lung and snap-frozen chestwalls quantified the extensive inflammatory response and collagen development in the lung and on the visceral and parietal surfaces. The interim results reported here, provide a clear basis for differentiating the effects from brake dust exposure from those following amphibole asbestos exposure. The subsequent results through life-time post-exposure will follow.
METHODS::The respiratory tract is lined by a pseudo-stratified epithelium from the nose to terminal bronchioles. This first line of defense of the lung against external stress includes five main cell types: basal, suprabasal, club, goblet and multiciliated cells, as well as rare cells such as ionocytes, neuroendocrine and tuft/brush cells. At homeostasis, this epithelium self-renews at low rate but is able of fast regeneration upon damage. Airway epithelial cell lineages during regeneration have been investigated in the mouse by genetic labeling, mainly after injuring the epithelium with noxious agents. From these approaches, basal cells have been identified as progenitors of club, goblet and multiciliated cells, but also of ionocytes and neuroendocrine cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing, coupled to lineage inference algorithms, has independently allowed the establishment of comprehensive pictures of cell lineage relationships in both mouse and human. In line with genetic tracing experiments in mouse trachea, studies using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) have shown that basal cells first differentiate into club cells, which in turn mature into goblet cells or differentiate into multiciliated cells. In the human airway epithelium, single-cell RNAseq has identified novel intermediate populations such as deuterosomal cells, 'hybrid' mucous-multiciliated cells and progenitors of rare cells. Novel differentiation dynamics, such as a transition from goblet to multiciliated cells have also been discovered. The future of cell lineage relationships in the respiratory tract now resides in the combination of genetic labeling approaches with single-cell RNAseq to establish, in a definitive manner, the hallmarks of cellular lineages in normal and pathological situations.