Combining Direct 3D Volume Rendering and Magnetic Particle Imaging to Advance Radiation-Free Real-Time 3D Guidance of Vascular Interventions.
- 作者列表："Weller D","Salamon JM","Frölich A","Möddel M","Knopp T","Werner R
PURPOSE:Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a novel tomographic radiation-free imaging technique that combines high spatial resolution and real-time capabilities, making it a promising tool to guide vascular interventions. Immediate availability of 3D image data is a major advantage over the presently used digital subtraction angiography (DSA), but new methods for real-time image analysis and visualization are also required to take full advantage of the MPI properties. This laboratory study illustrates respective techniques by means of three different patient-specific 3D vascular flow models. MATERIAL AND METHODS:The selected models corresponded to typical anatomical intervention sites. Routine patient cases and image data were selected, relevant vascular territories segmented, 3D models generated and then 3D-printed. Printed models were used to perform case-specific MPI imaging. The resulting MPI images, direct volume rendering (DVR)-based fast 3D visualization options, and their suitability to advance vascular interventions were evaluated and compared to conventional DSA. RESULTS:The experiments illustrated the feasibility and potential to enhance image interpretation during interventions by using MPI real-time volumetric imaging and problem-tailored DVR-based fast (approximately 30 frames/s) 3D visualization options. These options included automated viewpoint selection and cutaway views. The image enhancement potential is especially relevant for complex geometries (e.g., in the presence of superposed vessels). CONCLUSION:The unique features of the as-yet preclinical imaging modality MPI render it promising for guidance of vascular interventions. Advanced fast DVR could help to fulfill this promise by intuitive visualization of the 3D intervention scene in real time.
目的: 磁粒子成像 (MPI) 是一种新型的断层无辐射成像技术，结合了高空间分辨率和实时能力，使其成为指导血管介入治疗的一种有前途的工具。与目前使用的数字减影血管造影术 (DSA) 相比，3D图像数据的即时可用性是主要优势，但是还需要用于实时图像分析和可视化的新方法来充分利用MPI特性。该实验室研究通过三种不同的患者特异性3D血管流动模型说明了各自的技术。 材料和方法: 所选模型对应于典型的解剖干预部位。选择常规患者病例和图像数据，分割相关血管区域，生成3D模型，然后3D打印。使用打印模型进行病例特异性MPI成像。评估所得的MPI图像、基于直接体绘制 (DVR) 的快速3D可视化选项及其对提前血管介入的适用性，并与传统DSA进行比较。 结果: 实验说明了通过使用MPI实时体积成像和基于问题定制的DVR快速 (约30帧/秒) 3D可视化选项来增强干预期间图像解释的可行性和潜力。这些选项包括自动视点选择和剖视图。图像增强潜力尤其与复杂的几何形状相关 (例如，在存在重叠的血管的情况下)。 结论: 迄今为止临床前成像模式MPI的独特特征使其有望用于血管干预的指导。先进的快速DVR可以通过实时直观的3D干预场景来帮助实现这一承诺。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.