Age estimation from ossification of sternum and true ribs using 3D post-mortem CT images in a Japanese population.
- 作者列表："Monum T","Makino Y","Prasitwattanaseree S","Yajima D","Chiba F","Torimitsu S","Hoshioka Y","Yoshida M","Urabe S","Oya Y","Iwase H
:Age estimation of cadavers from post-mortem "chest plate" using conventional radiography, which involves radiographic assessment of ossification around the sternum and rib ends, has been evaluated without fruitful results. This study examined the value of images of the chest plate obtained by three-dimensional post-mortem CT for estimation of age at time of death in a Japanese population. Five chest plate ossification scores were evaluated in 320 subjects, including ossification of the first costal cartilage (OF), ossification of the second to seventh costal cartilages at the rib (OR) and sternal (OS) ends, fusion of the manubriosternal joint (FM), and fusion of the xiphisternal joint (FX). OS was found to have the highest correlation with age while FM had no significant correlation. The best composite score for age estimation was the summative score for both sides of the OS and the right side of the OF and FX, for which the coefficient of determination (R2) and the standard error of estimation (SEE) were 0.608 and 12.44 years, respectively, for men and 0.590 and 14.65 years for women. The accuracy of the model was tested in a further 26 male and 24 female subjects, and the accuracy rate within the first SEE was 57.69% and 70.83%, respectively. This rapid and non-invasive method of age estimation in the chest plate area is superior to conventional methods and could be useful for estimation of age at time of death in the Japanese population.
: 使用常规放射摄影术对尸体 “胸板” 的年龄估计，包括胸骨和肋骨末端周围骨化的放射摄影术评估，但没有取得丰硕的结果。这项研究检查了通过三维死后CT获得的胸片图像在日本人群中估计死亡时的年龄的价值。在320名受试者中评估了5个胸板骨化评分，包括第一肋软骨骨化 (of) 、第二至第七肋软骨在肋骨 (OR) 和胸骨 (OS) 端骨化、胸骨柄关节 (FM) 融合、和胸骨下关节 (FX) 的融合。发现OS与年龄的相关性最高，而FM无显著相关性。年龄估计的最佳综合评分是OS两侧和of和FX右侧的总结性评分，其中决定系数 (R2) 和估计标准误差 (见) 分别为0.608和12.44年，对于男性和0.590和14.65岁的女性。在另外的26名男性和24名女性受试者中测试模型的准确性，并且在第一次看到内的准确率分别为57.69% 和70.83%。在胸板区域中这种快速且非侵入性的年龄估计方法优于常规方法，并且可用于估计日本人群中死亡时的年龄。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:The aim was to evaluate the image quality and sensitivity to artifacts of compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique, applied to 3D or breath-hold sequences in different clinical applications from brain to knee. METHODS:CS with an acceleration from 30 to 60% and conventional MRI sequences were performed in 10 different applications in 107 patients, leading to 120 comparisons. Readers were blinded to the technique for quantitative (contrast-to-noise ratio or functional measurements for cardiac cine) and qualitative (image quality, artifacts, diagnostic findings, and preference) image analyses. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in image quality or artifacts was found for each sequence except for the cardiac cine CS for one of both readers and for the wrist 3D proton density (PD)-weighted CS sequence which showed less motion artifacts due to the reduced acquisition time. The contrast-to-noise ratio was lower for the elbow CS sequence but not statistically different in all other applications. Diagnostic findings were similar between conventional and CS sequence for all the comparisons except for four cases where motion artifacts corrupted either the conventional or the CS sequence. CONCLUSIONS:The evaluated CS sequences are ready to be used in clinical daily practice except for the elbow application which requires a lower acceleration. The CS factor should be tuned for each organ and sequence to obtain good image quality. It leads to 30% to 60% acceleration in the applications evaluated in this study which has a significant impact on clinical workflow. KEY POINTS:• Clinical implementation of compressed sensing (CS) reduced scan times of at least 30% with only minor penalty in image quality and no change in diagnostic findings. • The CS acceleration factor has to be tuned separately for each organ and sequence to guarantee similar image quality than conventional acquisition. • At least 30% and up to 60% acceleration is feasible in specific sequences in clinical routine.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The main surgical techniques for spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage include stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, and craniotomy. However, credible evidence is still needed to validate the effect of these techniques. OBJECTIVE:To explore the long-term outcomes of the three surgical techniques in the treatment of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. METHODS:Five hundred and sixteen patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage who received stereotactic aspiration, endoscopic aspiration, or craniotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Six-month mortality and the modified Rankin Scale score were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of different surgical techniques on patient outcomes. RESULTS:For the entire cohort, the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than that in the stereotactic aspiration group (odds ratio (OR) 4.280, 95% CI 2.186 to 8.380); the 6-month mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was lower than that in the craniotomy group, but the difference was not significant (OR=1.930, 95% CI 0.835 to 4.465). A further subgroup analysis was stratified by hematoma volume. The mortality in the endoscopic aspiration group was significantly lower than in the stereotactic aspiration group in the medium (≥40-<80 mL) (OR=2.438, 95% CI 1.101 to 5.402) and large hematoma subgroup (≥80 mL) (OR=66.532, 95% CI 6.345 to 697.675). Compared with the endoscopic aspiration group, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in the large hematoma subgroup of the craniotomy group (OR=8.721, 95% CI 0.933 to 81.551). CONCLUSION:Endoscopic aspiration can decrease the 6-month mortality of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, especially in patients with a hematoma volume ≥40 mL.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3D) software tool (smart planes) for displaying fetal brain planes, and the secondary purpose was to evaluate its accuracy in performing automatic measurements. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This prospective study included singleton fetuses with a gestational age (GA) greater than 18 weeks. Transabdominal two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) and 3D smart planes images were respectively used to obtain the basic planes of the fetal brain, with five parameters measured. The images, by either two-dimensional (2D) manual or 3D automatic operation, were reviewed by two experienced sonographers. The agreements between two measurements were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 226 cases were included. The rates of successful detection by automatic display were as high as 80%. There was substantial agreement between the measurements of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and transcerebellar diameter, but poor agreement between the measurements of cisterna magna and lateral ventricle width. CONCLUSIONS:Smart Planes might be valuable for the rapid evaluation of fetal brain, because it simplifies the evaluation process. However, the technology requires improvement. In addition, this technology cannot replace the conventional manual US scans; it can only be used as an additional approach.