Clinical and structural aspects of tracheal stenosis and a novel embryological hypothesis of left pulmonary artery sling.
- 作者列表："Fukushima N","Shimojima N","Ishitate M","Miyakawa T","Hirobe S","Miura M
OBJECTIVES:To identify the imaging features peculiar to congenital tracheal stenosis (CTS) complicated with left pulmonary artery sling (LPAS) with the aim of presenting a hypothesis of tracheal stenosis embryology in LPAS. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed CTS patients (with complete cartilaginous rings) admitted between April 2010 and July 2018. All the patients were classified into the LPAS or non-LPAS group, and their clinical characteristics and qualitative variables on computed tomography (CT) imaging were compared. RESULTS:Of the 72 patients enrolled, 61 had bilateral lungs. Among the bilateral lung patients, 26 (43%) had LPAS. The tracheal bifurcation was significantly deeper, the stenotic region was longer, and the bronchial angle (especially in the right) was wider, in the LPAS group. The cut-off values for the thoracic vertebral level at the tracheal bifurcation (>4.8), subcarinal angle (>118.1), and right bronchial angle (>61.9) were useful for diagnosing suspected cases of LPAS. In the time-dependent course, LPAS complicated with a congenital heart defect was a statistically significant risk factor of respiratory symptoms (hazard ratio, 3.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-7.37; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS:The CT findings described here should immediately raise suspicion of LPAS on chest X-ray and also suggest tracheal "squeezing and milking" by the surrounding vessels in the embryo. Patients with LPAS complicated with a heart defect should be followed carefully to determine the optimal timing of intervention.
目的: 明确先天性气管狭窄 (CTS) 合并左肺动脉吊带 (LPAS) 特有的影像学特征，提出 LPAS 气管狭窄胚胎学假说。 方法: 我们回顾性分析了 2010年4月至 2018年7月期间收治的 CTS 患者 (具有完全软骨环)。将所有患者分为 LPAS 组和非 LPAS 组，比较其临床特征和计算机断层扫描 (CT) 成像的定性变量。 结果: 入组的 72 例患者中，61 例为双侧肺。双侧肺患者中，26 例 (43%) 发生 LPAS。LPAS 组气管分叉明显较深，狭窄区域较长，支气管角 (尤其是右侧) 较宽。胸椎水平在气管分叉处 (> 4.8) 、隆突下角 (> 118.1) 和右支气管角 (> 61.9) 的临界值有助于诊断 LPAS 的疑似病例。在时间依赖性病程中，LPAS 合并先天性心脏缺陷是呼吸系统症状的统计学显著危险因素 (风险比，3.01; 95% 置信区间，1.23-7.37; p = 0.02)。 结论: 此处描述的 CT 表现应立即引起胸片上对 LPAS 的怀疑，并提示胚胎周围血管对气管的 “挤压和挤奶”。LPAS 合并心脏缺陷的患者应仔细随访，以确定最佳干预时机。
METHODS:Background Dye localization is a useful method for the resection of unidentifiable small pulmonary lesions. This study compares the transbronchial route with augmented fluoroscopic bronchoscopy (AFB) and conventional transthoracic CT-guided methods for preoperative dye localization in thoracoscopic surgery. Methods Between April 2015 and March 2019, a total of 231 patients with small pulmonary lesions who received preoperative dye localization via AFB or percutaneous CT-guided technique were enrolled in the study. A propensity-matched analysis, incorporating preoperative variables, was used to compare localization and surgical outcomes between the two groups. Results After matching, a total of 90 patients in the AFB group ( N = 30) and CT-guided group ( N = 60) were selected for analysis. No significant difference was noted in the demographic data between both the groups. Dye localization was successfully performed in 29 patients (96.7%) and 57 patients (95%) with AFB and CT-guided method, respectively. The localization duration (24.1 ± 8.3 vs. 21.4 ± 12.5 min, p = 0.297) and equivalent dose of radiation exposure (3.1 ± 1.5 vs. 2.5 ± 2.0 mSv, p = 0.130) were comparable in both the groups. No major procedure-related complications occurred in either group; however, a higher rate of pneumothorax (0 vs. 16.7%, p = 0.029) and focal intrapulmonary hemorrhage (3.3 vs. 26.7%, p = 0.008) was noted in the CT-guided group. Conclusion AFB dye marking is an effective alternative for the preoperative localization of small pulmonary lesions, with a lower risk of procedure-related complications than the conventional CT-guided method.
METHODS:Background The use of artificial intelligence, including machine learning, is increasing in medicine. Use of machine learning is rising in the prediction of patient outcomes. Machine learning may also be able to enhance and augment anesthesia clinical procedures such as airway management. In this study, we sought to develop a machine learning algorithm that could classify vocal cords and tracheal airway anatomy real-time during video laryngoscopy or bronchoscopy as well as compare the performance of three novel convolutional networks for detecting vocal cords and tracheal rings. Methods Following institutional approval, a clinical dataset of 775 video laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy videos was used. The dataset was divided into two categories for use for training and testing. We used three convolutional neural networks (CNNs): ResNet, Inception and MobileNet. Backpropagation and a mean squared error loss function were used to assess accuracy as well as minimize bias and variance. Following training, we assessed transferability using the generalization error of the CNN, sensitivity and specificity, average confidence error, outliers, overall confidence percentage, and frames per second for live video feeds. After the training was complete, 22 models using 0 to 25,000 steps were generated and compared. Results The overall confidence of classification for the vocal cords and tracheal rings for ResNet, Inception and MobileNet CNNs were as follows: 0.84, 0.78, and 0.64 for vocal cords, respectively, and 0.69, 0.72, 0.54 for tracheal rings, respectively. Transfer learning following additional training resulted in improved accuracy of ResNet and Inception for identifying the vocal cords (with a confidence of 0.96 and 0.93 respectively). The two best performing CNNs, ResNet and Inception, achieved a specificity of 0.985 and 0.971, respectively, and a sensitivity of 0.865 and 0.892, respectively. Inception was able to process the live video feeds at 10 FPS while ResNet processed at 5 FPS. Both were able to pass a feasibility test of identifying vocal cords and tracheal rings in a video feed. Conclusions We report the development and evaluation of a CNN that can identify and classify airway anatomy in real time. This neural network demonstrates high performance. The availability of artificial intelligence may improve airway management and bronchoscopy by helping to identify key anatomy real time. Thus, potentially improving performance and outcomes during these procedures. Further, this technology may theoretically be extended to the settings of airway pathology or airway management in the hands of experienced providers. The researchers in this study are exploring the performance of this neural network in clinical trials.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The optimal mode of delivering topical anesthesia during flexible bronchoscopy remains unknown. This article compares the efficacy and safety of nebulized lignocaine, lignocaine oropharyngeal spray, or their combination. METHODS:Consecutive subjects were randomized 1:1:1 to receive nebulized lignocaine (2.5 mL of 4% solution, group A), oropharyngeal spray (10 actuations of 10% lignocaine, group B), or nebulization (2.5 mL, 4% lignocaine) and two actuations of 10% lignocaine spray (group C). The primary outcome was the subject-rated severity of cough according to a visual analog scale. The secondary outcomes included bronchoscopist-rated severity of cough and overall procedural satisfaction on a visual analog scale, total lignocaine dose, subject's willingness to undergo a repeat procedure, adverse reactions to lignocaine, and others. RESULTS:A total of 1,050 subjects (median age, 51 years; 64.8% men) were included. The median (interquartile range) score for subject-rated cough severity was significantly lower in group B compared to group C or group A (4 [1-10] vs 11 [4-24] vs 13 [5-30], respectively; P < .001). The bronchoscopist-rated severity of cough was also the least (P < .001), and the overall satisfaction was highest in group B (P < .001). The cumulative lignocaine dose administered was the least in group B (P < .001). A significantly higher proportion of subjects (P < .001) were willing to undergo a repeat bronchoscopy in group B (73.7%) than in groups A (49.1%) and C (59.4%). No lignocaine-related adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS:Ten actuations of 10% lignocaine oropharyngeal spray were superior to nebulized lignocaine or their combination for topical anesthesia during diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy. TRIAL REGISTRY:ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT03109392; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.