Precise fibrosis staging with shear wave elastography in chronic hepatitis B depends on liver inflammation and steatosis.
- 作者列表："Ye J","Wang W","Feng S","Huang Y","Liao X","Kuang M","Xie X","Liao B","Zhong B
BACKGROUND:Two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) is the latest generation of ultrasound elastography for the non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We aimed to identify confounders of 2D-SWE in fibrosis grading. METHODS:A prospective cohort of 440 CHB patients (286 with liver biopsy and 154 with clinical decompensated cirrhosis) was consecutively enrolled from a clinical trial (registration number: ChiCTR-DCD-15006000) aimed at optimizing 2D-SWE assessments from 2015 to 2018. All patients underwent 2D-SWE examination, anthropometric measurement, and serum biomarker assessment. Steatosis was graded by the magnetic resonance imaging-derived proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF). RESULTS:Overall, the prevalence of incorrect fibrosis staging by 2D-SWE was 26.1% (n = 115), with 43.5% of patients under-staged and 56.5% over-staged. In multivariate analysis, the steatosis degree was an independent predictor of 2D-SWE discordance in the overall cohort, with moderate-severe steatosis for underestimation (odds ratio, [OR] = 4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-18.2, p = 0.049) and overestimation (OR = 8.2, 95% CI 2.9-23.5, p < 0.001), and mild steatosis for overestimation (OR = 3.7, 95% CI 1.5-9.0, p = 0.004). In patients with liver biopsy, both histological inflammation activity over 2 (OR = 5.0, 95% CI 2.0-25.3, p = 0.048) and moderate-severe steatosis (OR = 5.2, 95% CI 2.1-13.4, p < 0.001) were independent factors associated with discordance. For the risk of 2D-SWE mis-staging, a nomogram that integrated these confounders was established and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the model was 0.861. CONCLUSIONS:Steatosis and inflammation activities were confounders for 2D-SWE. The combination of these confounders could predict mis-staging risks of CHB-related fibrosis with 2D-SWE and may be valuable to decision-making on liver biopsy for fibrosis staging.
背景: 二维剪切波弹性成像 (2D-SWE) 是最新一代超声弹性成像用于慢性乙型肝炎 (CHB) 肝纤维化的非侵入性评估。我们旨在确定纤维化分级中 2D-SWE 的混杂因素。 方法: 从临床试验中连续入组 440 例 CHB 患者 (286 例肝活检和 154 例临床失代偿期肝硬化) 的前瞻性队列 (注册号: ChiCTR-DCD-15006000) 旨在优化 2D-SWE 评估 2015年 2018年。所有患者均接受 2D-SWE 检查、人体测量和血清生物标志物评估。通过磁共振成像衍生的质子密度脂肪分数 (MRI-PDFF) 对脂肪变性进行分级。 结果: 总体而言，2D-SWE 不正确纤维化分期的患病率为 26.1% (n = 115)，43.5% 的患者分期不足，56.5% 的患者分期过度。在多变量分析中，脂肪变性程度是总体队列中 2D-SWE 不一致的独立预测因子，中度-重度脂肪变性低估 (优势比，[OR] = 4.3, 95% 置信区间 [CI] 1.2-18.2，p = 0.049) 和高估 (or = 8.2，95% CI 2.9-23.5，p
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Opioids are often prescribed for pain in cirrhosis and may increase the risk of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). AIMS:To assess the association between opioids and HE in patients with well-compensated cirrhosis. METHODS:We used the IQVIA PharMetrics (Durham, NC) database to identify patients aged 18-64 years with cirrhosis. We excluded patients with any decompensation event from 1 year before cirrhosis diagnosis to 6 months after cirrhosis diagnosis. Over the 6 months after cirrhosis diagnosis, we determined the duration of continuous opioid use and classified use into short term (1-89 days) and chronic (90-180 days). We assessed whether patients developed HE over the subsequent year (ie 6-18 months after cirrhosis diagnosis). We used a landmark analysis and performed multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to assess associations between opioid use and HE, adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS:The cohort included 6451 patients with compensated cirrhosis, of whom 23.3% and 4.7% had short-term and chronic opioid prescriptions respectively. Over the subsequent year, HE occurred in 6.3% patients with chronic opioid prescriptions, 5.0% with short-term opioid prescriptions and 3.3% with no opioid prescriptions. In the multivariable model, an increased risk of HE was observed with short-term (adjusted hazard ratio, HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.07-1.94) and chronic opioid prescriptions (adjusted HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.07-3.12) compared to no opioid prescriptions. CONCLUSION:In this national cohort of privately insured patients with cirrhosis, opioid prescriptions were associated with the risk of incident HE. Opioid use should be minimised in those with cirrhosis and, when required, limited to short duration.
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Cirrhosis is characterized by extensive fibrosis of the liver and is a major cause of liver-related mortality. Cirrhosis is partially heritable but genetic contributions to cirrhosis have not been systemically explored. Here, we carry out association analyses with cirrhosis in two large biobanks and determine the effects of cirrhosis associated variants on multiple human disease/traits. METHODS:We carried out a genome-wide association analysis of cirrhosis as a diagnosis in UK BioBank (UKBB; 1088 cases vs. 407 873 controls) and then tested top-associating loci for replication with cirrhosis in a hospital-based cohort from the Michigan Genomics Initiative (MGI; 875 cases of cirrhosis vs. 30 346 controls). For replicating variants or variants previously associated with cirrhosis that also affected cirrhosis in UKBB or MGI, we determined single nucleotide polymorphism effects on all other diagnoses in UKBB (PheWAS), common metabolic traits/diseases and serum/plasma metabolites. RESULTS:Unbiased genome-wide association study identified variants in/near PNPLA3 and HFE, and candidate variant analysis identified variants in/near TM6SF2, MBOAT7, SERPINA1, HSD17B13, STAT4 and IFNL4 that reproducibly affected cirrhosis. Most affected liver enzyme concentrations and/or aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index. PheWAS, metabolic trait and serum/plasma metabolite association analyses revealed effects of these variants on lipid, inflammatory and other processes including new effects on many human diseases and traits. CONCLUSIONS:We identified eight loci that reproducibly associate with population-based cirrhosis and define their diverse effects on human diseases and traits.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis. In recent years, it has been postulated that the rate of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is increasing, especially in nosocomial SBP patients. Aim of the present work was to investigate this hypothesis and its possible clinical consequences. MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred and three culture-positive patients between 2007 and 2014 were compared with 81 patients between 2015 and 2017, to study the change of microbiological profiles and their clinical consequences. The cirrhosis patients with bacterascites requiring treatment were included as well. RESULTS:The most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria isolated from ascites were Enterobacterales (31.6%) and in Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococci (22.8%). There was a significant increase in MDROs (22.3% ICU 40.7%, P = .048), accompanied by an increased incidence of sepsis (from 21.4% to 37.0%, P = .021), hepatorenal syndrome (from 40.8% to 58.0%, P = .007) and the need of catecholamine therapy (from 21.4% to 38.8%, P = .036). Nosocomial origin correlated with higher MDRO proportion, more complications and lower antimicrobial susceptibility rates in 12 commonly used antibiotics. MDROs were confirmed as an isolated predictor for inpatient mortality and complications in multivariable logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS:The feeling in clinical practice that MDROs have increased in the last 11 years could be confirmed in our study in Munich, Germany. Nosocomial SBP correlated with significantly higher MDRO rates (nearly 50%) and complication rates. In our opinion, an antibiotic combination with comprehensive effect should be taken into account in nosocomial SBP patients in this region.