Predictors of reflux aspiration and laryngo-pharyngeal reflux.
- 作者列表："Khoma O","Burton L","Falk MG","Van der Wall H","Falk GL
BACKGROUND:Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) can present with typical or atypical or laryngo-pharyngeal reflux (LPR) symptoms. Pulmonary aspiration of gastric refluxate is one of the most serious variants of reflux disease as its complications are difficult to diagnose and treat. The aim of this study was to establish predictors of pulmonary aspiration and LPR symptoms. METHODS:Records of 361 consecutive patient from a prospectively populated database were analyzed. Patients were categorized by symptom profile as predominantly LPR or GERD (98 GER and 263 LPR). Presenting symptom profile, pH studies, esophageal manometry and scintigraphy and the relationships were analyzed. RESULTS:Severe esophageal dysmotility was significantly more common in the LPR group (p = 0.037). Severe esophageal dysmotility was strongly associated with isotope aspiration in all patients (p = 0.001). Pulmonary aspiration on scintigraphy was present in 24% of patients. Significant correlation was established between total proximal acid on 24-h pH monitoring and isotope aspiration in both groups (p < 0.01). Rising pharyngeal curves on scintigraphy were the strongest predictors of isotope aspiration (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Severe esophageal dysmotility correlates with LPR symptoms and reflux aspiration in LPR and GERD. Abnormal proximal acid score on 24-h pH monitoring associated with pulmonary aspiration in reflux patients. Pharyngeal contamination on scintigraphy was the strongest predictor of pulmonary aspiration.
背景: 胃食管反流病 (GERD) 可表现为典型或非典型或喉咽反流 (LPR) 症状。反流病的肺吸入是反流病最严重的变异之一，其并发症难以诊断和治疗。本研究的目的是建立肺吸入和LPR症状的预测因子。 方法: 分析来自前瞻性填充数据库的 361 例连续患者的记录。患者按症状特征分类主要为LPR或GERD (98 GER和 263 LPR)。对症状表现、pH研究、食管测压和闪烁扫描及其关系进行了分析。 结果: 重度食管动力障碍在LPR组更为常见 (p = 0.037)。所有患者的严重食管动力障碍与同位素抽吸强烈相关 (p = 0.001)。24% 的患者在闪烁扫描时出现肺穿刺。两组 24 h pH监测总近端酸与同位素抽吸之间均建立显著相关性 (p <0.01)。闪烁扫描咽部曲线上升是同位素吸入的最强预测因子 (p <0.01)。 结论: 严重的食管动力障碍与LPR和GERD的LPR症状和反流误吸相关。反流患者 24 h pH监测中与肺误吸相关的近端酸评分异常。闪烁扫描时咽部污染是肺误吸的最强预测因子。
METHODS:PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to compare the survival and toxicities in cervical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (CESCC) treated by concurrent chemoradiothrapy with either three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques. Materials and Methods:A total of 112 consecutive CESCC patients were retrospectively reviewed. 3D-CRT and IMRT groups had been analyzed by propensity score matching method, with sex, age, Karnofsky performance status, induction chemotherapy, and tumor stage well matched. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model were used for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Toxicities were compared between two groups by Fisher exact test. RESULTS:With a median follow-up time of 34.9 months, the 3-year OS (p=0.927) and PFS (p=0.859) rate was 49.6% and 45.8% in 3D-CRT group, compared with 54.4% and 42.8% in IMRT group. The rates of grade ≥ 3 esophagitis, grade ≥ 2 pneumonitis, esophageal stricture, and hemorrhage were comparable between two groups, while the rate of tracheostomy dependence was much higher in IMRT group than 3D-CRT group (14.3% vs.1.8%, p=0.032). Radiotherapy technique (hazard ratio [HR], 0.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01 to 0.79) and pretreatment hoarseness (HR, 0.12; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.70) were independently prognostic of tracheostomy dependence. CONCLUSION:No survival benefits had been observed while comparing IMRT versus 3D-CRT in CESCC patients. IMRT with fraction dose escalation and pretreatment hoarseness were considered to be associated with a higher risk for tracheostomy dependence. Radiation dose escalation beyond 60 Gy should be taken into account carefully when using IMRT with hypofractionated regimen.
METHODS::The radial force of esophageal stents may not completely change during extraction and therefore, the procedure of stent removal may cause tissue damage. The present study reports the manufacture of 2 novel detachable stents, which were designed to reduce tissue damage through their capacity to be taken or fall apart prior to removal and evaluated the supporting properties of these stents and the extent of local mucosal injury during their removal. The stents were manufactured by braiding, heat-setting, coating and connecting. The properties of the stents were evaluated by determining the following parameters: Expansion point, softening point, stent flexibility, radial compression ratio and radial force. A total of 18 rabbits with induced esophageal stricture were randomly assigned to 3 groups as follows: Detachable stent (DS) group, biodegradable stent (BS) group and control group. The stricture rate, complications, survival, degradation and stent removal were observed over 8 weeks. The stents of the DS and BS groups provided a similar supporting effect. The stricture rate, incidence of complications and survival were also similar between the 2 groups, while significant differences were noted between the DS and control groups and between the BS and control groups. In the BS group, the stents were degraded and moved to the stomach within 7 weeks (2 in 6 weeks and 3 in 7 weeks). The debris was extracted using biopsy forceps. In the DS group, all stents were easy to remove and 2 cases exhibited minor hemorrhage. In conclusion, the 2 types of novel detachable stent provided an equally efficient supporting effect in vitro and in vivo and may reduce the incidence of secondary injury during stent removal.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Immune imbalance and inflammation have been suggested as key factors of Barrett's esophagus (BE) pathway towards adenocarcinoma. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) indirectly reflects the relation between innate and adaptive immune systems and has been studied in premalignant conditions as a biomarker for cancer diagnosis. Our aim was to investigate if increasing values of NLR correlated with advancing stages of BE progression to dysplasia and neoplasia. METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed data of patients with biopsies reporting BE between 2013 and 2017 and with a complete blood count within 6 months from the endoscopy, as well as patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). NLR was calculated as neutrophil count/lymphocyte count. Cases (n = 113) were classified as non-dysplastic BE (NDBE, n = 72), dysplastic BE (DBE, n = 11) and EAC (n = 30). RESULTS:NLR progressively increased across groups (NDBE, 1.92 ± 0.7; DBE, 2.92 ± 1.1; EAC 4.54 ± 2.9), with a significant correlation between its increasing value and the presence of dysplasia or neoplasia (r = 0.53, p 2.27 was able to diagnose EAC with 80% sensitivity and 71% specificity (area under the curve = 0.8). CONCLUSION:NLR correlates with advancing stages of BE progression, a finding that reinforces the role of immune imbalance in EAC carcinogenesis and suggests a possible use of this marker for risk stratification on surveillance strategies.