Synergic Effects of Berberine and Curcumin on Improving Cognitive Function in an Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model.
- 作者列表："Lin L","Li C","Zhang D","Yuan M","Chen CH","Li M
:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, and no effective therapies have been found to prevent or cure AD to date. Berberine and curcumin are extracts from traditional Chinese herbs that have a long history of clinical benefits for AD. Here, using a transgenic AD mouse model, we found that the combined berberine and curcumin treatment had a much better effect on improving the cognitive function of mice than the single-drug treatment, suggesting synergic effects of the combined berberine and curcumin treatment. In addition, we found that the combined berberine and curcumin treatment had significant synergic effects on reducing soluble amyloid-β-peptide(1-42) production. Furthermore, the combination treatment also had remarkable synergic effects on decreasing inflammatory responses and oxidative stress in both the cortex and hippocampus of AD mice. We also found that the combination treatment performed much better than the single drugs in reducing the APP and BACE1 levels and increasing AMPKα phosphorylation and cell autophagy, which might be the underlying mechanism of the synergic effects. Taken together, the result of this study reveal the synergic effects and potential underlying mechanisms of the combined berberine and curcumin treatment in improving the symptoms of AD in mice. This study sheds light on a new strategy for exploring new phytotherapies for AD and also emphasizes that more research should focus on the synergic effects of herbal drugs in the future.
阿尔茨海默病 (Alzheimer's disease，AD) 是最常见的神经退行性疾病之一，迄今尚未发现有效的预防或治疗 AD 的方法。小檗碱和姜黄素是传统中草药的提取物，对 AD 有长期的临床益处。在这里，使用转基因 AD 小鼠模型，我们发现小檗碱和姜黄素联合治疗对改善小鼠认知功能的效果比单药治疗好得多, 提示小檗碱和姜黄素联合治疗的协同作用。此外，我们发现小檗碱和姜黄素联合处理对减少可溶性淀粉样 β 肽 (1-42) 的产生具有显著的协同作用。此外，联合治疗对减少 AD 小鼠皮层和海马的炎症反应和氧化应激也有显著的协同作用。我们还发现，联合治疗在降低 APP 和 BACE1 水平、增加 ampk α 磷酸化和细胞自噬方面比单一药物表现好得多，这可能是协同作用的潜在机制。综上所述，本研究结果揭示了小檗碱和姜黄素联合治疗在改善小鼠 AD 症状中的协同作用和潜在的潜在机制。本研究揭示了探索 AD 新植物疗法的新策略，也强调了未来更多的研究应关注草药的协同作用。
METHODS::Identifying disease-causing pathways and drugs that target them in Parkinson's disease (PD) has remained challenging. We uncovered a PD-relevant pathway in which the stress-regulated heterodimeric transcription complex CHOP/ATF4 induces the neuron prodeath protein Trib3 that in turn depletes the neuronal survival protein Parkin. Here we sought to determine whether the drug adaptaquin, which inhibits ATF4-dependent transcription, could suppress Trib3 induction and neuronal death in cellular and animal models of PD. Neuronal PC12 cells and ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons were assessed in vitro for survival, transcription factor levels and Trib3 or Parkin expression after exposure to 6-hydroxydopamine or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium with or without adaptaquin co-treatment. 6-hydroxydopamine injection into the medial forebrain bundle was used to examine the effects of systemic adaptaquin on signaling, substantia nigra dopaminergic neuron survival and striatal projections as well as motor behavior. In both culture and animal models, adaptaquin suppressed elevation of ATF4 and/or CHOP and induction of Trib3 in response to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and/or 6-hydroxydopamine. In culture, adaptaquin preserved Parkin levels, provided neuroprotection and preserved morphology. In the mouse model, adaptaquin treatment enhanced survival of dopaminergic neurons and substantially protected their striatal projections. It also significantly enhanced retention of nigrostriatal function. These findings define a novel pharmacological approach involving the drug adaptaquin, a selective modulator of hypoxic adaptation, for suppressing Parkin loss and neurodegeneration in toxin models of PD. As adaptaquin possesses an oxyquinoline backbone with known safety in humans, these findings provide a firm rationale for advancing it towards clinical evaluation in PD.
METHODS::Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by brain atrophy particularly in the striatum that produces motor impairment, and cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed including dysfunctions in neurotrophic support and calpain-overactivation, among others. Kinase D-interacting substrate of 220 kDa (Kidins220), also known as ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (ARMS), is an essential mediator of neurotrophin signaling. In adult brain, Kidins220 presents two main isoforms that differ in their carboxy-terminal length and critical protein-protein interaction domains. These variants are generated through alternative terminal exon splicing of the conventional exon 32 (Kidins220-C32) and the recently identified exon 33 (Kidins220-C33). The lack of domains encoded by exon 32 involved in key neuronal functions, including those controlling neurotrophin pathways, pointed to Kidins220-C33 as a form detrimental for neurons. However, the functional role of Kidins220-C33 in neurodegeneration or other pathologies, including HD, has not been explored. In the present work, we discover an unexpected selective downregulation of Kidins220-C33, in the striatum of HD patients, as well as in the R6/1 HD mouse model starting at early symptomatic stages. These changes are C33-specific as Kidins220-C32 variant remains unchanged. We also find the early decrease in Kidins220-C33 levels takes place in neurons, suggesting an unanticipated neuroprotective role for this isoform. Finally, using ex vivo assays and primary neurons, we demonstrate that Kidins220-C33 is downregulated by mechanisms that depend on the activation of the protease calpain. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that calpain-mediated Kidins220-C33 proteolysis modulates onset and/or progression of HD.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Neuroinflammation has been recognized as an important factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the most recognized pathways in mediating neuroinflammation is the prostaglandin E2-EP1 receptor pathway. OBJECTIVE:Here, we examined the efficacy of the selective EP1 antagonist ONO-8713 in limiting amyloid-β (Aβ), lesion volumes, and behavioral indexes in AD mouse models after ischemic stroke. METHODS:Transgenic APP/PS1, 3xTgAD, and wildtype (WT) mice were subjected to permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pdMCAO) and sham surgeries. Functional outcomes, memory, anatomical outcomes, and Aβ concentrations were assessed 14 days after surgery. RESULTS:pdMCAO resulted in significant deterioration in functional and anatomical outcomes in the transgenic mice compared with the WT mice. No relevant differences were observed in the behavioral tests when comparing the ONO-8713 and vehicle-treated groups. Significantly lower cavitation (p = 0.0373) and percent tissue loss (p = 0.0247) were observed in APP/PS1 + ONO-8713 mice compared with the WT + ONO-8713 mice. However, the percent tissue injury was significantly higher in APP/PS1 + ONO-8713 mice compared with WT + ONO-8713 group (p = 0.0373). Percent tissue loss was also significantly lower in the 3xTgAD + ONO-8713 mice than in the WT + ONO-8713 mice (p = 0.0185). ONO-8713 treatment also attenuated cortical microgliosis in APP/PS1 mice as compared with the vehicle (p = 0.0079); however, no differences were observed in astrogliosis across the groups. Finally, APP/PS1 mice presented characteristic Aβ load in the cortex while 3xTgAD mice exhibited very low Aβ levels. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, under the experimental conditions, EP1 receptor antagonist ONO-8713 showed modest benefits on anatomical outcomes after stroke, mainly in APP/PS1 mice.