Propoxyphene Mediates Oxyhemoglobin-Induced Injury in Rat Cortical Neurons Through Up-Regulation of Active-β-Catenin.
- 作者列表："Li Y","Wang J","Li Z","Cheng H","Zhang Z","Luo T","Zhang X","Gao G","Lu H","Li L
:Wnt/β-catenin signaling is involved in various biological processes, including the development of the central nervous system. The dysfunction of mitochondria has been shown to participate in the progress of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) is a serious complication in acute craniocerebral trauma. Opioids can activate the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. c-Myc, a downstream protein of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, contributes to the fusion of mitochondria. Here, we investigated the protective roles of Propoxyphene (Pro) against Oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb)-induced primary cultured neuron apoptosis. The data indicated that Pro rescued active-β-catenin from OxyHb-induced decline. Furthermore, Pro attenuated OxyHb-induced apoptosis and fission of mitochondria in primary cortical neurons. However, the protective effects were abrogated under active-β-catenin-deficient conditions. Together, the data presented here showed that Pro, a weak opioid analgesic drug, attenuates OxyHb-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in an active-β-catenin-c-Myc-dependent manner.
: Wnt/β-catenin 信号参与各种生物学过程，包括中枢神经系统的发育。线粒体功能障碍已被证明参与了蛛网膜下腔出血 (SAH) 的进展。外伤性蛛网膜下腔出血 (tSAH) 是急性颅脑外伤的严重并发症。阿片类药物可激活经典 Wnt/β-catenin 信号通路。C-Myc 是 Wnt/β-catenin 信号的下游蛋白，有助于线粒体的融合。在此，我们研究了丙氧芬 (Pro) 对氧合血红蛋白 (OxyHb) 诱导的原代培养神经元凋亡的保护作用。数据表明，Pro 从 OxyHb 诱导的下降中拯救了活性 β-catenin。此外，Pro 减弱 OxyHb 诱导的原代皮质神经元线粒体凋亡和分裂。然而，在活性 β-catenin 缺乏的条件下，保护作用被消除。总之，这里提出的数据表明，一种弱阿片类镇痛药物 Pro 以活性-β-catenin-c-Myc 依赖性方式减弱 OxyHb 诱导的线粒体依赖性凋亡。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:People with stroke are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. The modifiable factors associated with post-stroke physical activity levels need to be identified to develop targeted interventions. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to investigate the factors at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation that are associated with physical activity levels at 3 months following discharge. DESIGN:This was a prospective cohort study. METHODS:Sixty-four people with stroke completed baseline assessments at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation and 55 completed the follow-up 3 months later. The candidate factors (i.e. gait speed, balance, strength, cognition, mood and motivation) were measured at discharge. The primary outcome measure at follow-up was walking related activity (measured by wrist-worn accelerometer). Secondary outcome measures were physical activity participation (Activity Card Sort) and intensity of physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short 7 days). Adjusted separate multivariable linear regression models or proportional odds regression models were used to evaluate the associations between candidate factors and physical activity. RESULTS:Gait speed and balance were associated with all aspects of physical activity. Higher level of intrinsic motivation was also associated with higher physical activity participation. Anxiety demonstrated a significant non-linear relationship with physical activity participation. LIMITATIONS:Inclusion of fatigue and individual muscle strength could have provided further insights into associations with steps per day. CONCLUSION:The results demonstrated that better physical function at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation was associated with future increased levels of physical activity. Additionally, higher levels of motivation impacted on increased physical activity participation. The influence of anxiety on physical activity participation requires further exploration. Mixed-method study designs can be utilized to further understand the factors associated with post-stroke physical activity.
METHODS:Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is characterized by initial transient cerebral ischemia followed by reperfusion. Various pathophysiological processes are involved in brain injury and functional recovery during cerebral I/R. There are few studies on dynamic metabolic process after cerebral I/R. The present study was to observe dynamic alteration of brain injury, functional recovery, and metabolites after cerebral I/R in rats and discover potential metabolic markers. The cerebral I/R model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min, following reperfusion in rats. The results of cerebral infarction area, cerebral edema, and behavior test showed that there were dynamic changes in brain injury and functional recovery at different periods after cerebral I/R. Further analysis showed that the brain injury was severe on the first day of cerebral I/R, and there was a significant functional recovery from the 7th day of cerebral I/R, followed by an aggravation trend of brain injury from the days 7 to 28. Furthermore, Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging analysis showed that the expression of ATP, glucose, and citric acid on 7th day was the highest during cerebral I/R, which indicated that energy metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation played important roles during cerebral I/R. In addition, the untargeted metabolomic results showed that the level of isocitric acid, the ratio of oxyglutaric acid/glutamic acid, and the level of pyruvic acid associated with the TCA cycle were also the highest on the 7th day during cerebral I/R, which indicated that the transient spontaneous recovery of ischemic brain on the 7th day after ischemia-reperfusion might be related to oxidative phosphorylation and energy metabolism in the brain in this period. In conclusion, the results suggest that some small molecule metabolites participate in the brain injury and functional recovery during cerebral I/R, which is of great significance to the development of therapeutic drugs and diagnostic markers.
METHODS:The aims of this study were to study the effects of miR-2 on cerebral ischemia–reperfusion rats and to explore its further mechanism. Rats were assigned into sham, model, miR-22 control and miR-22 groups. Observation of neurological behaviors at 24 h after operation found that neurological functions were severely damaged in the model and miR-22 control groups and these damages were improved by miR-22. RT-PCR indicated that miR-22 mRNA level in the brain tissue was significantly decreased in the model and miR-22 control groups, but increased in the miR-22 group. TTC staining showed increased percentage of cerebral infarction volume in the model and miR-22 control groups and this increase was reduced by miR-22. Immunohistochemistry showed increased densities of CD34^+ and VEGF^+ microvessels in the cortex in the model and miR-22 control groups, which were further increased in the miR-22 group. ELISA showed increased serum VEGF and Ang-1 levels in the model and miR-22 control groups, which were also further increased in the miR-22 group. Western blot analysis showed increased phosphorylation level of PI3K and Akt in brain tissue in the model and miR-22 control groups, which were further increased in the miR-22 group. Administration of LY294002, a specific PI3K pathway inhibitor, significantly reversed all the effects of miR-22 on rats in the model group. miR-22 exerts its neuroprotective and angiogenic functions via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, at least partly, in rats under cerebral ischemia–reperfusion.