- 作者列表："Zhou B","Fu Y","Zhang H","Wang X","Jin G","Xu J","Liu Q","Liu J
BACKGROUND:Lipid metabolism is pivotal for the growth of apicomplexan parasites. Lipid synthesis requires bulk carbon skeleton acyl-CoAs, the transport of which depends on the acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP). In Neospora caninum, the causative agent of neosporosis, the FASII pathway is required for growth and pathogenicity. However, little is known about the fatty acid transport mechanism in N. caninum. METHODS:We have identified a cytosolic acyl-CoA binding protein, with highly conserved amino acid residues and a typical acyl-CoA binding domain in N. caninum. The recombinant NcACBP protein was expressed to verify the binding activities of NcACBP in vitro, and the heterologous expression of NcACBP in Δacbp yeast in vivo. Lipid extraction from ΔNcACBP or the wild-type of N. caninum was analyzed by GC-MS or TLC. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis was performed to compare the gene expression in different strains. RESULTS:The NcACBP recombinant protein was able to specifically bind acyl-CoA esters in vitro. A yeast complementation assay showed that heterologous expression of NcACBP rescued the phenotypic defects in Δacbp yeast, indicating of the binding activity of NcACBP in vivo. The disruption of NcACBP did not perturb the parasite's growth but enhanced its pathogenicity in mice. The lipidomic analysis showed that disruption of NcACBP caused no obvious changes in the overall abundance and turnover of fatty acids while knockout resulted in the accumulation of triacylglycerol. Transcriptional analysis of ACBP-deficient parasites revealed differentially expressed genes involved in a wide range of biological processes such as lipid metabolism, posttranslational modification, and membrane biogenesis. CONCLUSIONS:Our study demonstrated that genetic ablation of NcACBP did not impair the survival and growth phenotype of N. caninum but enhanced its pathogenicity in mice. This deletion did not affect the overall fatty acid composition but modified the abundance of TAG. The loss of NcACBP resulted in global changes in the expression of multiple genes. This study provides a foundation for elucidating the molecular mechanism of lipid metabolism in N. caninum.
背景: 脂质代谢对于 apicomplexan 寄生虫的生长至关重要。脂质合成需要大量碳骨架酰基-CoAs，其转运依赖于酰基-CoA 结合蛋白 (ACBP)。在新孢子虫病的病原体新孢子虫中，FASII 途径是生长和致病性所必需的。然而，对 N.caninum 中的脂肪酸转运机制知之甚少。 方法: 我们鉴定了一种胞质酰基-CoA 结合蛋白，具有高度保守的氨基酸残基和典型的酰基-CoA 结合域。caninum。表达重组 NcACBP 蛋白以验证 NcACBP 的体外结合活性，并在 Δ acbp 酵母体内异源表达 NcACBP。通过 GC-MS 或 TLC 分析 Δ ncacbp 或野生型犬瘟热菌的脂质提取。此外，进行转录组分析，比较不同菌株中的基因表达。 结果: NcACBP 重组蛋白在体外能够特异性结合酰基辅酶a 酯。酵母互补试验表明，NcACBP 的异源表达挽救了 Δ acbp 酵母的表型缺陷，表明了 NcACBP 在体内的结合活性。NcACBP 的破坏并没有扰乱寄生虫的生长，而是增强了其在小鼠中的致病性。脂质组学分析表明，NcACBP 的破坏未引起脂肪酸总体丰度和周转的明显变化，而敲除导致三酰甘油的积累。ACBP 缺陷寄生虫的转录分析揭示了差异表达基因参与广泛的生物过程，如脂质代谢、翻译后修饰和膜生物发生。 结论: 我们的研究表明，NcACBP 的遗传消融并没有损害犬奈瑟菌的存活和生长表型，而是增强了其在小鼠中的致病性。这种缺失不影响整体脂肪酸组成，但改变了 TAG 的丰度。NcACBP 的缺失导致了多个基因表达的全局性变化。本研究为阐明犬脂代谢的分子机制奠定了基础。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Given the importance of habitual dietary protein intake, distribution patterns and dietary sources in the aetiology of age-related declines of muscle mass and function, the present study examined these factors as a function of sex and age in Irish adults aged 18-90 years comprising The National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). METHODS:In total, 1051 (males, n = 523; females, n = 528) undertook a 4-day semi-weighed food diary. Total, body mass relative intake and percentage contribution to total energy intake of dietary protein were determined in addition to protein distribution scores (PDS), as well as the contribution of food groups, animal- and plant-based foods to total protein intake. RESULTS:Total and relative protein intake [mean (SD)] were highest in those aged 18-35 years [96 (3) g day , 1.32 (0.40) g kg day ], with lower protein intakes with increasing age (i.e. in adults aged ≥65 years [82 (22) g, 1.15 (0.34) g kg day , P < 0.001 for both]. Differences in protein intake between age groups were more pronounced in males compared to females. Protein distribution followed a skewed pattern for all age groups [breakfast, 15 (10) g; lunch, 30 (15) g; dinner, 44 (17) g]. Animal-based foods were the dominant protein source within the diet [63% (11%) versus 37% (11%) plant protein, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS:Protein intake and the number of meals reaching the purported threshold for maximising post-prandial anabolism were highest in young adults, and lower with increasing age. For main meals, breakfast provided the lowest quantity of protein across all age categories and may represent an opportunity for improving protein distribution, whereas, in older adults, increasing the number of meals reaching the anabolic threshold regardless of distribution pattern may be more appropriate.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Periodic CRF assessment can have an important preventive function. OBJECTIVE:To develop a protocol-free method to estimate CRF in daily life based on heart rate (HR) and body acceleration measurements. METHODS:Acceleration and HR data were collected from 37 subjects (M=49%) while performing a standardized laboratory activity protocol (sitting, walking, running, cycling) and during a 5-days free-living monitoring period. CRF was determined by oxygen uptake (VO2max) during maximal exercise testing. A doubly-labeled water validated equation was used to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) from acceleration data. A fitness index was defined as the ratio between TEE and HR (TEE-pulse). Activity recognition techniques were used to process acceleration features and classify sedentary, ambulatory and other activity types. Regression equations based on TEE-pulse data from each activity type were developed to predict VO2max. RESULTS:TEE-pulse measured within each activity type of the laboratory protocol was highly correlated to VO2max (r from 0.74 to 0.91). Averaging the outcome of each activity-type specific equation based on TEE-pulse from the laboratory data led to accurate estimates of VO2max (RMSE: 300.0 mlO2/min or 10%). The difference between laboratory and free-living determined TEE-pulse was 3.7 ± 11% (r =0.85). The prediction method preserved the prediction accuracy when applied to free-living data (RMSE: 367 mlO2/min or 12%). CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of body acceleration and HR can be used to predict VO2max in daily life. Activity-specific prediction equations are needed to achieve highly accurate estimates of CRF.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Postprandial dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recently, bile acids have been recognized beyond their emulsification properties as important signaling molecules that promote energy expenditure, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower fasting lipemia. While bile acid receptors have become novel pharmaceutical targets, their effects on postprandial lipid metabolism remain unclear. Here we investigated the potential role of bile acids in regulation of postprandial chylomicron production and triglyceride excursion. Approach and Results: Healthy C57BL/6 mice were given an intraduodenal infusion of taurocholic acid (TA) under fat-loaded conditions and circulating lipids were measured. Targeting of bile acid receptors was achieved with GW4064, a synthetic agonist to the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and with deoxycholic acid (DCA), an activator of the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5. TA, GW4064, and DCA treatments all lowered postprandial lipemia. FXR agonism also reduced intestinal triglyceride content and activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, involved in chylomicron assembly. Importantly, TA effects (but not DCA) were largely lost in FXR knockout mice. These bile acid effects are reminiscent of the anti-diabetic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). While the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 retained its ability to acutely lower postprandial lipemia during bile acid sequestration and FXR deficiency, it did raise hepatic expression of the rate limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Bile acid signaling may be an important mechanism of controlling dietary lipid absorption and bile acid receptors may constitute novel targets for the treatment of postprandial dyslipidemia.